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Syringe and Needle to Inject in Medical and Other Fields 

A syringe is a simple piston pump consisting of a piston (although in modern syringes it is a plunger) that fits snugly into a cylindrical tube called a barrel. The plunger can be pulled linearly and pushed into the tube, allowing the syringe to enter and expel the liquid or gas through the discharge port at the front (open) end of the tube. The open end of the syringe can be connected to a hypodermic needle, syringe, or tubing to direct flow in and out of the cylinder. Syringes are commonly used in clinical medicine to administer injections, infuse intravenous therapy into the bloodstream, apply compounds such as glue or lubricant, and collect/measure fluids. The word "syringe" is derived from the Greek σύριγξ (syrinx, meaning "pan flute", "tube").

Showing syringe with needle


Definitions of Syringe

Following are some proper definitions of syringe:

  §  A device consisting of a nozzle of various lengths and a squeezable rubber flask and used for injection or irrigation

  §  A gravity device consisting of a reservoir attached to a long rubber tube ending in a replaceable nozzle used for vaginal or bowel irrigation.

  §  An instrument (for example, for injecting drugs or collecting body fluids) consisting of a hollow cylinder attached to a piston and a hollow needle

  §  A medical device that is used to inject fluid into, or withdraw fluid from, the body. A medical syringe consists of a needle attached to a hollow cylinder that is fitted with a sliding plunger. The downward movement of the plunger injects fluid; upward movement withdraws fluid. Medical syringes were once made of metal or glass, and required cleaning and sterilization before they could be used again. Now most syringes used in medicine are plastic and disposable.

What is hypodermic needle?

A hypodermic (hypo - under, dermal - skin) needle is a hollow needle that is often used with a syringe to inject substances into the body or to extract fluids from the body. It can also be used to collect fluid samples from the body, such as taking blood from a vein by venipuncture. Large-bore subcutaneous intervention is particularly useful in the treatment of catastrophic blood loss or shock.

Infographics on hypodermic needle

The hypodermic needle also ensures rapid delivery of fluids. It is also used when an injectable substance cannot be taken orally because it is not absorbed, like insulin, or because it damages the liver.

Hypodermic needles also play an important role in research that requires sterile conditions. 

A hypodermic needle reduces contamination during sterile substrate inoculation in two ways:

i. its surface is extremely smooth, which prevents airborne pathogens from being trapped between the surface irregularities of the needle, which can later be transferred to the medium as contamination. 

ii. The needle tip is extremely sharp, which can reduce the diameter of the remaining hole after the membrane is broken, thereby preventing microbes larger than the hole from contaminating the substrate.


What are medical syringes?

The threads of the Luer lock tip of this 12mL disposable syringe keep it securely connected to a tube or other apparatus.

Medical syringe

Syringe usually made entirely of glass, with no parts made from metal, nor any other material.


What is antique glass and metal syringe?

The syringes and needles market sector includes disposable and safety syringes, injection pens, needleless injectors, insulin pumps and specialty needles.

Syringes are used with injection needles to inject fluids or gases into body tissues or to remove them from the body. Injecting air into a vein is dangerous because it can cause an air embolism.

Prevention of embolism by removing air from the syringe is one of the reasons for the familiar image of holding the syringe up, tapping and releasing a small amount of fluid before injecting blood flow.

Showing antique glass and metal syringe

The syringe barrel is made of plastic or glass, usually has graduated markings to indicate the amount of liquid in the syringe, and is almost always transparent. Glass syringes can be sterilized in an autoclave.

Plastic syringes can be two- or three-piece. The three-piece syringe contains a plastic piston/rubber-tipped plunger to create a seal between the piston and cylinder, while the two-piece syringe is designed to fit perfectly between the plastic piston and cylinder around the seal without the need for a separate synthetic rubber piston.

Two-piece syringes are traditionally used in European countries to avoid the introduction of additional materials, such as silicone oil, which are required to lubricate the three-piece piston.

Most modern medical syringes are plastic because they can be cheaply thrown away after one use, reducing the risk of spreading blood-borne diseases.

The reuse of needles and syringes has caused the spread of diseases, especially HIV and hepatitis, among drug users.

Syringes are also often reused by diabetics because they can go through several daily insulin injections several times a day, which has become a problem that many can afford. Even if only one person uses the syringe and needle, the procedure is still dangerous because it can carry bacteria from the skin into the bloodstream, causing serious and sometimes fatal infections.

 In the medical environment, disposable needles and syringes effectively reduce the risk of cross-contamination.

Medical syringes are sometimes used without needles to orally administer liquid medicine to small children or animals, or milk to small animals, because the dose can be accurately measured and it is easier to inject the medicine into the mouth than the test object. drink from a measuring cup.


What type Tip Designs of Syringes exist?

Syringes have different designs for the area where the blade fits into the body of the syringe. Perhaps the most famous of these is the Luer lock, which simply twists the two together.

Bodies with small, simple joints are known as sliding tips and are used when the syringe is attached to something that does not have a screw lock mechanism.

Similar is the catheter tip, which is a sliding tip, but longer and tapered, so it's good for pushing into things where a plastic cone would fit tightly. It can also be used to wash wounds or large abscesses in veterinary use.

Infographics showing antique glass and metal syringe

There is also an eccentric tip, where the nozzle at the end of the syringe is not in the center of the syringe, but to the side. This is why the blade attached to the syringe is roughly in line with the walls of the syringe itself, and is used when the blade needs to be very close to parallel to the skin (for example, to inject a superficial vein or artery).


What are multipoint needle syringes?

There are syringes designed to be refilled from a built-in tank (container) after each injection, so they can perform multiple or multiple injections in one refill. It is rarely used in human medicine due to the risk of cross-infection with needles.

A multipoint needle syringes

Exceptions are the personal insulin auto-injector used by patients with diabetes and dual-chamber syringes designed to administer pre-filled saline flush after medication.


What are Standard U-100 insulin syringes?

Insulin syringes are marked with "units" of insulin.

Syringes for insulin users are designed for standard U-100 insulin. The dilution of insulin is such that 1 ml of liquid insulin contains 100 basic "units" of insulin.

Because insulin vials are usually 10 mL, each vial contains 1,000 units.

U-100 insulin syringes

Insulin syringes are specially made for self-injection and have friendly features:

• finer needles for less pain

• Shorter needles because the insulin injection is subcutaneous (under the skin) instead of intramuscular

• Markings on insulin units to facilitate drawing a measured dose of insulin and

• Clear the dead space to reduce complications caused by incorrect monitoring of symptoms of different insulin strengths. Size and designation of the U-100 syringe


What are venom extraction syringes?

Venom extraction syringes differ from standard syringes because they usually do not penetrate the wound. The most common types have a plastic mouthpiece placed over the affected area and then the plunger of the syringe is retracted, creating a vacuum that supposedly draws in the venom. 

Venom extraction syringe

Attempts to treat a snakebite in this manner are expressly discouraged as they are ineffective and may cause further damage.

Syringes of this type are sometimes used to remove botfly larvae from the skin.


What are dose-sparing syringes?

A dose-sparing syringe and needle being used to draw up a Covid-19 vaccine

A dose-sparing syringe is one which minimises the amount of liquid remaining in the barrel after the plunger has been depressed.

Showing dose-sparing syringes

These syringes feature a combined needle and syringe, and a protrusion on the face of the plunger to expel liquid from the needle hub.

Such syringes were particularly popular during the COVID-19 pandemic as vaccines were in short supply.



What are oral syringes?

An oral syringe is a measuring device which doctors use to accurately measure doses of liquid medication, expressed in milliliters (ml). This type of syringe does not have threaded points, as there is no need to insert a needle or other instrument.

The contents of this syringe are simply sprayed or sucked from a syringe directly into the mouth of a person or animal.

An Oral syringe

Oral syringes come in a variety of sizes ranging  from 1 to 10 mL and larger. The most commonly used sizes are 1 ml, 2.5 ml and 5 ml in hospitals and clinics.


What are dental syringes?

A toothpick is used by dentists to inject anesthesia. It consists of a capped syringe attached to a sealed cartridge containing anesthetic solution.

In 1928, Bayer Dental developed, developed and manufactured a closed cartridge system under the registered trademark Carpule®. The current owner of the trademark is Kulzer Dental GmbH.

Carpels have long been reserved for anesthetics for dental use. It's practically a bottomless bottle.

This is replaced by an elastomer plug that can be inserted into the body of the cartridge.

This stopper will be pushed into the plunger of the syringe. The neck is closed with a rubber cap.

A dental syringe

The dentist inserts the cartridge directly into a stainless steel syringe that has a double (disposable) needle. A tip located on the side of the container breaks the capsule and the plunger pushes the product. Thus, the product does not come into contact with the surrounding air during use.

An accessory tool (usually part of a dentist) used to deliver water, compressed air, or a mist (created by combining water and compressed air) into the oral cavity for the purpose of rinsing (removing debris from the area being worked on) dentist . ), also known as a dental syringe or dental irrigation nozzle.

The three-way syringe/nozzle has separate internal channels that deliver air, water or a mist created by combining compressed air with a stream of water. The syringe tip can be separated from the main body and replaced if necessary.

In the UK and Ireland, hand syringes are used to inject lidocaine into patients' gums.



Syringe Regulation

In some jurisdictions, the sale or possession of hypodermic syringes may be controlled or prohibited without a prescription by an authorized professional, due to its suspected use with illegal intravenous drugs.


What are some Non-medical Uses of Syringes?

Syringes have many non-medical applications like:

  1. Recreation
  2. Injecting liquid or fluid into any object, etc.


What are laboratory applications of syringes?

Laboratory grease, often used to lubricate burrs and stopcocks, is sometimes filled into syringes for ease of use.


Some chemical compounds such as thermal paste and various adhesives, e.g. epoxy, sold in prepackaged syringes.

Disposable medical syringes are often used in research laboratories for their convenience and low cost.

Another application is to use the tip of a needle to add fluids to confined spaces, such as washing some scientific equipment. 

It is often used for measuring and transferring solvents and reagents where high accuracy is not required. On the other hand, microliter syringes can be used to measure and dispense chemicals very accurately using a small diameter capillary like the barrel of the syringe.

The polyethylene construction of these disposable syringes usually makes them relatively chemically resistant. 

However, there is a risk that the contents of the syringes will leach plasticizers from the syringe material. Where this is a problem, non-disposable glass syringes may be preferred.

Glass syringes may also be preferred where a high level of precision is important (ie, quantitative chemical analysis) because their engineering tolerances are lower and the plungers operate more smoothly. In these applications, pathogen transmission is usually not a problem.

Syringes used with a long needle or cannula are also useful for transferring fluids through rubber septa when oxygen or atmospheric moisture is excluded. Examples include switching to air-sensitive or pyrophoric agents such as phenylmagnesium bromide and n-butyllithium. Glass syringes are also used to inject small samples for gas chromatography (1 μl) and mass spectrometry (10 μl). 

Injection drivers can also be used with syringes in cooking

Another use of syringes in cooking is to inject liquids (such as sauce) into other foods or to make certain sweets.

Syringes can also be used when cooking meat to improve flavor and texture by injecting juices into the meat, and when cooking to inject fillings into baked goods. Typically, these syringes are made of stainless steel components, including the barrel. This facilitates easy disassembly and cleaning.


Other Uses

Syringes are used to fill ink cartridges with ink in fountain pens. Common shop applications include injecting adhesive into tight spaces to repair joints where disassembly is impractical or impossible; and inject lubricants into work surfaces without spillage.

Sometimes a large syringe without a needle is used for very small farmed mammals.

Historically, large pumps that used a reciprocating motion to pump water were called syringes. Bombs of this type are used as fire extinguishers.

There are fountain syringes where the liquid is in a bag or can and goes through a tube into the syringe. In earlier times, enema syringes were used for this.

Loose snus is often consumed using one's own syringes. The mouthpiece is removed so that the opening is the width of the room. Snus can be tightly packed in the chamber and fall over the upper lip. Syringes, called slicers, are also made for this specific purpose.


Blunt needle assemblies are useful for industrial and non-medical applications

The blunt needle assembly provides many useful applications in both industrial and non-medical applications. The types of needles used in these types of establishments are usually not sterile because the processes in which they are used do not require sterile needles. 

A blunt tip is often preferred over a sharp tip as it helps reduce the risk of accidents such as puncturing the skin. The flat tip also helps prevent damage to other materials in the areas where it is used. For example, needles may be part of your ink cartridge filling processes. You want to make sure the needle fills the cartridge but is not sharp enough to go through the plastic chambers where the ink is in the cartridge.


Do arts and crafts companies use blunt needle assemblies to make products?

Small businesses that make their own arts and crafts products by hand often use blunt needle sets. Common applications include the use of needles to apply glues, paints and adhesives. Needle assemblies are designed for use with corded bottles such as syringes. Needle size, like wall thickness, determines how effective glues, paints, and pipe glues are. Depending on the types of products you make, you can use different gauge sizes and wall thicknesses. You can also use custom and secondary processes in situations where you have specific requirements. Another option you can consider to get different dispensing needles is to get them in lab kits.



History of Syringes Development

De Medicina by the Roman author Aulus Cornelius Celsus, later the first medical textbook to be printed

•          Piston syringes were used in ancient times. During the 1st century AD Aulus Cornelius Celsus mentioned the use of them to treat medical complications in his De Medicina.

•          9th century: The Iraqi/Egyptian surgeon Ammar ibn 'Ali al-Mawsili' created a syringe in the 9th century using a hollow glass tube, and suction to remove cataracts from patients' eyes, a practice that remained in use until at least the 13th century.

•          Pre-Columbian Native Americans created early hypodermic needles and syringes using "hollow bird bones and small animal bladders".[33][34]

•          1650: Blaise Pascal invented a syringe (not necessarily hypodermic) as an application of what is now called Pascal's law.

•          1844: Irish physician Francis Rynd invented the hollow needle and used it to make the first recorded subcutaneous injections, specifically a sedative to treat neuralgia.

•          1853: Charles Pravaz and Alexander Wood independently developed medical syringes with a needle fine enough to pierce the skin. Pravaz's syringe was made of silver and used a screw mechanism to dispense fluids. Wood's syringe was made of glass, enabling its contents to be seen and measured, and used a plunger to inject them. It is effectively the syringe that is used today.

•          1865: Charles Hunter coined the term "hypodermic", and developed an improvement to the syringe that locked the needle into place so that it would not be ejected from the end of the syringe when the plunger was depressed, and published research indicating that injections of pain relief could be given anywhere in the body, not just in the area of pain, and still be effective.

•          1867: The Medical and Chirurgical Society of London investigated whether injected narcotics had a general effect (as argued by Hunter) or whether they only worked locally (as argued by Wood). After conducting animal tests and soliciting opinions from the wider medical community, they firmly sided with Hunter.

•          1899: Letitia Mumford Geer patented a syringe which could be operated with one hand and which could be used for self-administered rectal injections.

•          1946: Chance Brothers in Smethwick, West Midlands, England, produced the first all-glass syringe with interchangeable barrel and plunger, thereby allowing mass-sterilisation of components without the need for matching them.

•          1949: Australian inventor Charles Rothauser created the world's first plastic, disposable hypodermic syringe at his Adelaide factory.

•          1951: Rothauser produced the first injection-moulded syringes made of polypropylene, a plastic that can be heat-sterilised. Millions were made for Australian and export markets.

•          1956: New Zealand pharmacist and inventor Colin Murdoch was granted New Zealand and Australian patents for a disposable plastic syringe.

See also

•          Fire syringe has two meanings:

o          A fire piston, a fire starting device

o          A squirt, in the form of a large syringe, one of the first firefighting devices in history used to squirt water onto the burning fuel.

•          Autoinjector, a device to ease injection, e.g. by the patient or other untrained personnel.

•          Hippy Sippy

•          Jet injector, injects without a needle, by squirting the injection fluid so fast that it makes a hole in the skin.

•          Luer Taper, a standardized fitting system used for making leak-free connections between syringe tips and needles.

•          Needle exchange programme, is a social policy based on the philosophy of harm reduction where injecting drug users (IDUs) can obtain hypodermic needles and associated injection equipment at little or no cost.

•          Trypanophobia, a fairly common extreme fear of hypodermic syringes

•          Syrette, similar to a syringe except that it has a closed flexible tube (like that used for toothpaste) instead of a rigid tube and piston.

•          Syringing the ear to remove excess ear wax.

•          Syrinx, the nymph from classical mythology after which syringes were supposedly named.

•          Safety syringe, with features to prevent accidental needlesticks and reuse

•          Vaginal syringe


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What is Nomenclature for Medical Devices?

The nomenclature of medical devices is a coding and naming system used to generically classify and identify all medical devices and related health products. According to different classification and nomenclature systems, there are between 5,000 to 24,000 different types of medical devices. They range from the very simple to complex, inexpensive to costly.  The number and types of devices are increasing exponentially.


Which characteristics are required for a standardized nomenclature for medical devices?

Countries and other stakeholders need a globally accessible, transparent and harmonized nomenclature system for medical devices.

WHO recognizes the availability of multiple systems and offers a platform towards convergence. The lack of such a system is impeding progress towards access to medical devices, which has an negative impact on efforts to facilitate emergency interventions and, more broadly, achieve universal health coverage.


Medical Devices descriptive chart


What do you understand by ‘medical devices’?

Medical devices include all types of health technologies (except for vaccines and medicines) required for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation and palliation. These are indispensable for universal health coverage, monitoring well being and addressing outbreaks or emergencies.

Some types of medical devices include:

Types of Medical Devices

Examples of Medical Devices

Single Use Devices

Syringes, Catheters


Hip Prothesis, Pacemakers


Ultrasound and CT scanners

Medical Equipment

Anesthesia Machines, Patient Monitors, Hemodialysis Machines


Computer Aided Diagnostics

In vitro Diagnostics

Glucometer, HIV Tests

Personal Protective Equipment

Mask, Gowns, Gloves

Surgical and Laboratory Instruments

Scissors, Knives, etc



Why is there a need for a standardized nomenclature for medical devices?

The multiple nomenclatures in existence makes it difficult to communicate important information between individuals and organizations, which can result in health, economic and social impact. It complicates procurement, supply and trade, and tracking of medical devices.

Some important information negatively impacted by an absence of a standardized nomenclature include:

  •     Patient safety
  •     Intended use of medical devices
  •     Regulatory status
  •     Technical information
  •     Adverse events
  •     Availability
  •     Others


A standardized classification and nomenclature of medical devices will serve as a common language for recording and reporting medical devices across the whole health system at all levels of health care, and for a whole range of uses. Hence, the WHO is working towards a globally accessible, transparent and harmonized  nomenclature system.


Medical device infographics

Standardization of naming medical devices is also essential for:

  1.     Streamlining procurement
  2.     Grouping and evaluating innovative technologies
  3.     Classifying for regulatory approval (registration)
  4.     Supporting device descriptions for universal health coverage benefits packages
  5.     Ordering and grouping of devices in electronic health records and other health information systems


Medical equipment designs


What is WHO and nomenclature for medical devices?

Several systems exist today to name and classify medical devices. Each system is used by a different group of professionals depending on the needs of that group. Such needs include:

  1. Regulatory approval
  2. Procurement and supply
  3. Customs operation
  4. Inventories and maintenance, among others


Some countries and organizations have developed their own national systems that are not compatible across systems.

 Refer Also|: Syringes and Needles FAQ

In 2010 and 2017 WHO conducted surveys asking about Nomenclature systems. As many as 174 countries responded.  About half of the responding member states (52%, n=90), use at least one official nomenclature system for medical devices. 

In contrast, 84 member states did not have any official national nomenclature (49%). More information can be found in the Global Atlas of Medical Devices (2017). This Atlas is currently being updated (2021). 

The GAMD 2021 (including information by country on the use of nomenclature systems for medical devices), was open for consultation until December 2021. 

Up-dates on nomenclature systems for medical devices from member state's Ministries of Health have been included. 

Please find further information in the  WHO GAMD website.


In resolution WHA60.29 (2007), WHO was requested  to work with interested Member States and WHO collaborating centres on the development of guidelines and tools relating to health technologies (in particular medical devices). Such guidelines and tools were to include norms, standards and a standardized glossary of definitions. 

All stakeholders were to use a transparent and evidence-based process.


WHO standardized nomenclature for medical devices

A standardized international classification coding and nomenclature of medical devices could link to WHO’s other international classification systems, such as the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, the International Classification of Functioning, 

Disability and Health and for health products, the International Non-proprietary Name for medicines, in order to support organized and standardized information for policy-makers and managers. 

In March 2011 WHO convened representatives from the nomenclature agencies to search for convergence in Nomenclature of Medical Devices which has not been achieved to date.


Medical tools


WHO consultations on nomenclature for medical devices

Since 2010, WHO has conducted several consultations on issues related to medical devices, including discussions during WHO’s  past Global Fora on medical devices (in 2010, 2013, 2017 and  2018), and country surveys to determine country needs. 

WHO has also developed guidance documents on:

  1.  How to formulate policies on medical devices
  2.  Effective donation of medical devices
  3.  How to select, assess, manage and procure relevant devices

In all the above-mentioned Fora, documents or consultations, the topic of lack of standardized nomenclature was noted.



WHO request for collaboration on nomenclature for medical devices

In 2018,  WHO published a Request for input and collaboration towards international classification, coding and nomenclature of medical devices, that included the principles of governance, classification and access of information. 

WHO received 43 comments from Member States and other organizations. Since then, WHO has been searching for a solution that complies with those principles, which are summarized below.


    Organizational and review structures should be in place to ensure that all stakeholders from different regions are able to provide feedback according to global needs.


Classification, coding and nomenclature characteristics of Medical Device

The following are required:

  1.      Transparent methodology and processes
  2.      Transparent mechanism for regular updates (e.g. once per year)
  3.      Hierarchies grouped into categories and subcategories to meet stakeholder needs
  4.      Medical devices used outside highly regulated countries
  5.      Mutually exclusive terms
  6.      Availability of terms in other languages


Access to information


Information should:

  • Be freely available and considered a global public good
  •  Support unique device identifier system
  •  Be accessible through simple and intuitive search
  •  Be available for use in all health-related data base systems
  •  Be capable of being referenced and used by regulators, procurers, managers and all users of medical devices (hospitals/health care workers and patients)



Which characteristics are required for a standardized nomenclature for medical devices?

Countries and other stakeholders need a globally accessible, transparent and harmonized nomenclature system for medical devices.

WHO recognizes the availability of multiple systems and offers a platform towards convergence. The lack of such a system is impeding progress towards access to medical devices, which has an negative impact on efforts to facilitate emergency interventions and, more broadly, achieve universal health coverage.


2019-2021 WHO Executive Board sessions related to a standardized nomenclature for medical devices

 On 29 May 2019, the report Standardization of Nomenclature for Medical Devices EB145/3 was presented in Executive Board 145 with recommendations on international classification, coding and nomenclature for medical devices. 

The nomenclature system can be used in all Member States and supports: patient safety, access to medical devices for universal health coverage, preparedness for emergency support and emergency response, efforts to improve quality in healthcare and the achievement of Goal 3 of sustainable development. 

The webcast of the school management presents the declaration of the member states 

    On 23 January 2021, the WHO Executive Board 148 discussed report EB148/13 on the standardized nomenclature of medical devices. The report proposes that WHO will not create a new medical device nomenclature or adopt its own system, but align with the European medical device nomenclature, which will support the regulation, control and management of medical devices to improve access. 

Statements by Member States are available on the Executive Board webcast 148. Member States require information and consultation meetings. 

The first meeting for Member States will take place on 12 April 2021 and further meetings will be held with other stakeholders.

    In April 2021, WHO updated the analysis of the existing nomenclature of medical devices requested by Member States. The analysis will be updated as more information becomes available.



What are the Different Types of Medical Equipment?

i. Diagnostic Equipment

The doctor or technician looks for any abnormalities in the affected organs or body parts that are causing the symptoms. 

A diagnostic medical device is any type of device or equipment that is used in a hospital setting for the sole purpose of diagnosing a patient's condition. 

Based on the symptoms described by the patient, a diagnostic examination is performed with the appropriate equipment for the internal examination of the patient. 


What are the most common types of diagnostic equipment used in laboratories and medical clinics?

Below are some of the most common types of diagnostic equipment used in laboratories and medical clinics:

• Medical imaging devices: The visual image produced by the device is used for clinical analysis and medical intervention. 

Medical imaging is a type of technology used to create a visual representation of the inside of the human body.  

There are many medical imaging devices such as radiography (X-ray machine), computed tomography (CT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan), ultrasound and echocardiography to name a few.

• In addition to medical imaging devices, there are other medical devices that are used to diagnose patients. Some examples include patient scales, stethoscopes, Doppler and pulse oximetry.


ii. What is Durable Medical Equipment (DME)?

Use of this device must be prescribed by a physician and is designed for medical purposes. This type of medical equipment is mainly used to provide therapeutic benefits for certain conditions or diseases. It is a long-lasting and reusable device that can be used in the hospital or at home for patient care.

There are different types of durable medical equipment as:

•          Manual wheelchairs or electric wheelchairs

•          Hospital beds

•          Walkers, crutches, canes (or any similar type of mobility assistive equipment)

•          Traction equipment

•          Pressure mattresses

•          Insulin pumps

•          Breast pumps

•          Nebulizers

•          Patient Lifts

•          Bili lights and blankets

•          Kidney machines

•          Stationary or portable oxygen tanks

•          Oxygen Concentrators Ventilators

The term ‘durable’ is derived from the fact that these types of equipment have been tested for quality.

They are designed to provide support for the safety and comfort of the patients.

They should be able to deliver just that. Some of the common features of durable medical equipment include non-slip features and load-bearing strength.

Since this equipment is prescribed by the physician for the benefit of the patient, the cost of acquiring one is often covered by health insurance plans.



iii. What is Treatment Equipment?

Treatment equipment is any type of medical device or tool that is designed to treat a specific condition. It utilizes modern technology in order to address any abnormalities to restore function in the affected organs or tissues within the body.

This can also include the surgical supplies designed to provide treatment for certain conditions that require surgical intervention.

Below are common examples of medical treatment equipment that you will find in hospitals and clinics:

•          LASIK Surgical Machines: The use of LASIK technology is used primarily for the treatment of eye conditions. It is designed for use on patients suffering from myopia, hyperopia, or astigmatism.

•          Medical Lasers: Laser is a revolutionary technology introduced in the medical field for the treatment of various medical conditions. 

It is a device that emits a wavelength of electromagnetic radiation for clinical applications.

These settings are to be determined by the attending physician during treatment.

These wavelengths vary when it comes to energy level and pulse duration.

•          Infusion Pumps: This type of treatment equipment is used in a hospital setting. 

It is designed to infuse medication, fluids, and other forms of treatment to the patient’s circulatory system. 

This machine is reliable because it injects controlled amounts of fluids into the patient’s system over a given period of time. 

This machine is used intravenously but you can also find epidural or arterial infusions. 


Meanwhile, treatment equipment used for surgical procedures include the following:

•          Diagnostic scopes

•          Surgical caps, gowns, gloves, or glasses (for the surgical team)

•          Gauze and drapes (for patients)



iv. What is Life Support Equipment?

As the name implies, life support equipment are those medical devices intended to maintain the bodily function of a patient. Without life support, it will be difficult for the patient’s organ systems to function on their own. 

There are a variety of life support machines in the medical field today, such as the following:

•          Heart-lung Machines: These are also known as cardiopulmonary bypass (CB) devices, this type of equipment temporarily functions as the heart or lungs of a patient during surgery.

 It is known as a form of extracorporeal circulation.

 It facilitates in the circulation of blood and oxygen throughout the patient’s body.

•          Medical Ventilators: This type of device is designed to move breathable air in and out of the lungs.  

There are two types of medical ventilators. One is hand-operated using a bag valve mask. The other is run and operated by a computer.  

It is used on patients who have difficulty breathing, or who are incapable of delivering an adequate supply of oxygen throughout the body. 

You will find this machine used in intensive care unit patients or home care patients.

•          Incubators: An incubator is a medical apparatus used for neonatal intensive care. 

It is often used in conjunction with a few other medical equipment such as an oxygen hood and ventilator.

It is designed to mimic the environmental conditions suitable for newborn babies. 


•          Dialysis Machine: Dialysis is the method of removing excess solutes or toxins from the blood. 

It is a type of renal replacement therapy. 

Dialysis machines are essential for those who have kidney damage or lost kidney function. 

It is used on people whose kidneys have been damaged and are incapable of performing these functions. 



What is Medical Laboratory Equipment?

The use of medical laboratory equipment is often seen in medical clinics or diagnostic laboratories.

These types of equipment are intended for the analysis of blood, urine, genes, and other biological material.

What are the are the most common medical laboratory equipment used in the medical field?

Below are the most common examples of medical laboratory equipment used in the medical field:

•          Microbiological systems

•          Blood gas analyzers

•          Chemistry analyzers

•          Blood collection supplies

•          Electrolyte analyzers

•          Differential counters

•          Drug testing analyzers

•          Coagulation analyzers

•          Urinalysis analyzers

•          Hematology analyzers

As medical technology continues to evolve, you can expect that there will be more types of medical equipment emerging.

This is good news to patients who can expect quality medical care and diagnosis utilizing the latest in medical technology.


Discussion at the 24th WHO World Health Assembly on the nomenclature of medical devices

    Although there is general agreement that a standardized nomenclature should be used for all member states, as an element to support the evaluation, regulation, purchase and management of medical devices, the discussions are polarized: a set of countries that promote - a proprietary system - and a number of countries with this proposal disagreed and asked the WHO for advice on a relevant approach that takes into account existing systems.

    As requested by Member States at the 145th session of the Executive Board, WHO will not create a new nomenclature, but will choose from available ones to work towards convergence.

    The WHO Secretariat was asked by the EB in January to hold an information meeting with Member States - one on 12 April with all Member States and 3 other meetings with: Andean countries, the European Commission, the Medical Devices Consultative Group and other NGOs approved by FENSA and biomedical engineers, and presented by IMDRF.

    Further information meetings and consultations will be held from June to September 2021 with stakeholders: regulatory authorities, industry, health care providers and managers, and Member States. The WHO hopes to have a new report in October with the results of the investigation and consultation ready to present for discussion before the next EB 150.

WHO needs help from Member States to find similarities between available systems, including between the proprietary Global Medical Device Nomenclature system, the European Medical Device Nomenclature and other important nomenclature systems, to ensure international classification, coding and nomenclature. available especially in this. at a time when access to medical supplies is essential to respond to an outbreak and to strengthen health systems.

Refer Also|: Syringes and Needles FAQ

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