November 2022


Virus Composition Structure Naming and Viral Reproduction

Viruses are a class of microorganisms that do not have cell structures and are intertwined with life features such as genetics and replication. They are non-cellular microbial groups. It has the characteristics of life in the host cell, only the characteristics of general chemical macromolecules outside the living cell, and obligate parasitization in the living cell. Individuals are tiny and can be seen under an electron microscope through a bacterial filter. The size is expressed in nanometers (nm). In 1892, the Russian scholar Ivanovsky first discovered that the pathogen of tobacco mosaic disease could pass unimpeded through the porcelain that bacteria could not pass through, so it was named filter virus or virus. Viruses are small and have no cell structure. Most of them can be observed with an electron microscope. Various viruses have different structures and morphologies, and have strict host specificity, that is, they can only proliferate in certain types of living cells. 

The basic chemical composition of viruses is nucleic acids and egg protein. Some viruses also contain lipids, polysaccharides and inorganic salts. A virus has only one type of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) genetic material. Depending on the host, viruses can be divided into animal viruses, plant viruses and bacterial viruses (phages).

Table of Content

  1.    Virus Discovery

  2.    Chemical composition of the virus

  3.    Structure of the virus

  4.    Viral Reproduction

  5.    Classification and naming of viruses

How virus was discovered?

Although early on, people recognized the presence of the virus through disease caused by the virus. In the second and third centuries BC, India and China had records of smallpox. However, the discovery and identification of viruses was a matter of the late 19th century.

In 1886, Mayer, a German working in the Netherlands, was attracted by a pathological condition of tobacco. His symptoms were infection of dark, shallow green areas on the leaves. The leaves of the plant are crushed with water, and the juice is injected into the veins of healthy tobacco, which can cause mosaic disease, which proves that the disease is contagious. Through analysis of leaves and soil, Maier pointed out that tobacco mosaic is caused by bacteria.

Mayr's Experiment for Viruses

In 1892, Russian biologist Ivanovski repeated Mayr's experiments, confirming the phenomenon Mayr saw, and further found that the leaf juice of diseased tobacco plants passed through a bacterial filter It can also cause mosaic disease in healthy tobacco plants. This phenomenon can at least explain that the pathogenic cause is not bacteria, but Ivanovsky explained that it was caused by toxins produced by bacteria. Living in the heyday of Pasteur's theory of bacterial pathogenicity, Ivanovsky was unable to think further, thus missing a major discovery.

In 1898, the Dutch bacteriologist Beijerinck also confirmed Maier's observations, and, like Ivanovsky, found that the tobacco mosaic pathogen could pass through bacterial filters, but Bergerinck Think deeper. He placed the sap of the tobacco mosaic virus strain on the surface of the agar gel block and found that the substance infected with tobacco mosaic disease diffused at a moderate rate in the gel, while the bacteria remained on the surface of the agar.

Soluble live bacteria

 Since Bejlink's experiments did not show the particle morphology of the pathogen, he called it contagium vivum fluidum (soluble live bacteria), named the virus, and called it Virus in Latin. No doubt Bejlink became the discoverer of the virus. However, Bergerinck believed that the virus exists in liquid form, but this view was later overturned by American biochemist and virologist Stanley, who proved that the virus is granular. Virus size and morphology

Virus sizes vary widely by species. Small viruses are only 10 to 22 nanometers, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, which is equivalent to the largest protein molecule (heme protein molecule); large viruses, such as pox virus, are 250-300 × 200-250 nanometers in size, which is approximately the smallest prokaryotic Mycoplasma microorganisms.

Most plant viruses range in length from 300 nanometers (such as tobacco mosaic virus) to 750 nanometers (such as potato Y virus) and are about 10-20 nanometers wide. The morphology of the virus varies by species. Animal viruses are generally spherical, oval. or brick-shaped. Plant viruses are mainly rod-shaped or filamentous, and many are spherical. Bacterial viruses are mostly tadpole-shaped and also micro-spherical and filamentous.

Chemical composition of virus

The chemical composition of most viruses is nucleic acids and proteins, and some also contain lipids and polysaccharides.

Viral nucleic acid A virus contains only one type of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA). Most plant viruses contain RNA and a few contain DNA; phages mostly contain DNA and a few contain RNA, such as E. coli phages M13 and M12; some animal viruses contain DNA, such as variola virus, and some contain RNA, such as influenza virus. In biological cells, DNA is double-stranded and RNA is single-stranded, but the situation is more complicated in viruses. Nucleic acid content varies greatly among different viruses, some are only 1%, such as influenza viruses, and some are as high as 50%, such as E. coli T-line even phage.

The protein of the virus mainly constitutes the shell of the virus particle and protects the virus nucleic acid from being destroyed by nucleases and other physical and chemical factors; determines the specificity of the virus infection and has specific affinity with the receptors present on the surface of susceptible cells; determines the antigenicity of the virus ; Stimulate the body to produce corresponding antibodies. Viral proteins also constitute enzymes in the virus.

Other ingredients The lipids and polysaccharides are contained in the coatings of more complex viruses (such as pox virus). Lipids account for 50 to 60% of the lipids and the rest is cholesterol. Polysaccharides often exist in the form of glycolipids and glycoproteins.

Structure of virus

The structure is intact and infectious individuals are called virions. The nucleocapsid is the basic structure of virions. Complex viruses have a capsule on the outer surface of the nucleocapsid, and there are spikes on it. Because the capsid particles are arranged and combined in different ways, the virus assumes different configurations and shapes.

Viral reproduction

Replication (replication) is a way for viruses to multiply. The entire process is called the replication cycle and includes five consecutive steps: adsorption, invasion, husking, biosynthesis, assembly and release. The virus lacks the enzyme system and energy necessary for metabolism and the raw materials, energy and biosynthetic site required for its proliferation are provided by the host cells. Under the control of viral nucleic acid, the virus's nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) and protein are synthesized, and then assembled into mature, infectious viral particles in the cytoplasm or nucleus of the host cell and then released to the cell in various ways External infection of other cells.

Classification and naming of viruses

Names of Viruses: According to the International Virus Classification Commission's principles for virus classification and naming, its classification basis includes the host of the virus, the disease it causes, the shape and size of the virus particle, the type, structure, and chain number of the nucleic acid, and the presence or absence of the capsule of the virus particle. Among them, virus nucleic acid is DNA or RNA, the virus genome is a single component or multiple groups of systems, and the presence or absence of capsular vesicles is the three important characteristics of the virus. The viruses currently understood are divided into seven categories, with 59 families (groups). Or groups), in practice, viruses are still divided into plant viruses, animal viruses (also divided into vertebrate viruses, insect viruses) and microbial viruses (also divided into phages and fungi) according to the host.

Viruses are not only the research objects of microbiology and virology, but also the important research objects of molecular biology and molecular genetics. As the pathogen of many diseases, the research on virus diseases and its prevention has important practical significance.

Viruses invade animals, plants and microorganisms, destroy animal husbandry and crops, and cause significant losses to the national economy. The virus is very harmful to human health, and many infectious diseases such as influenza, measles, Japanese encephalitis, pneumonia, and polio are all caused by the virus. Certain viruses can also cause tumors in animals. Bacterial virus pollution is a taboo in the fermentation industry, threatening the fermentation production of pesticides, antibiotics, enzyme preparations, organic solvents and dairy production. Some viruses can be used to control pests and pathogens. Viruses are also important experimental materials for molecular biology research.

Virus Structure Names Viral Reproduction. Viruses

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Draupadi Murmu, the Fifteenth Indian President 

Draupadi Murmu (Droupadi Murmu), female, was born on June 20, 1958 in a tribe in Odisha, eastern India. She joined the Bharatiya Janata Party in 1997 and served as a parliamentarian and government minister of Odisha for many years. From 2015 to 2021, he served as the Governor of Jharkhand State.

On July 21, 2022 local time, Murmu was elected as the 15th president of India. At 10:15 a.m. local time on July 25, India, Murmu was sworn in as the fifteenth president of India.

India holds a new round of presidential elections, Indian media generally believe that Draupadi Murmu has an advantage


Mormu elected as India's new president

The new female president of India, Mormu, is a beautiful teacher. The candles bid farewell to each other and shed tears until dawn


India ushered in the second female president. What is the origin of Mormu, who was born in a tribe?

India voted for a new president, may usher in second female president. 

Murmu sworn in as India's president

India's new female president, even Modi nodded in affirmation

What is the origin of Murmu?

From a low-caste untouchable (as left try to propagate) to a female president, India's new iron lady Mormu.

Table of contents

1. Biography

2. Personal life

3. Social activities


Character Resume

On June 20, 1958, Murmu was born in the village of Baida Posi in the Mayurbanji district of Odisha, belonging to the Santhal tribe, one of the oldest and largest tribal groups in India. Become a teacher after overcoming a difficult environment and completing their studies .

Murmu started his career as a clerk in the government of Odisha.

From 1979 to 1983, Murmu worked as a junior assistant in the Department of Irrigation and Energy. After quitting her job in Bhubaneswar and returning to Leonpur, Odisha, at the insistence of her mother-in-law, to take care of her family, she found a job as a teacher at Sri Aurobindo Integrated School.

In 1997, Murmu was elected as an MP in Leonpur.

Elected to the State Assembly twice in Leonpur in 2000 and 2009.

From 2000 to 2004, he served as Minister in the State Coalition Government led by Naveen Patnaik. Initially responsible for commerce and transportation, later responsible for fisheries and animal resource integration.

From 2006 to 2009, Murmu served as the chairman of the BJP's "Recorded Tribes" state body.

In 2015, Murmu was appointed Jharkhand's first female governor for a six-year term until July 2021.

On July 18, 2022, the 2022 Indian presidential election will be held. Female tribal leader Murmu and senior politician Sinha will represent the ruling and opposition camps respectively .

On July 21, 2022 local time, Murmu, a candidate elected by the Indian Democratic League, defeated his opponent and was elected the 15th president of India.  She became the second female president of India and the first president from a tribal area.  At 10:15 a.m. on July 25, local time in India, Murmu was sworn in as the fifteenth president of India.


Personal Life

Murmu's life took a tragic turn when she lost her eldest son in 2009. A few years later, she lost her second son and her husband.


Social Activities

In September 2022, the Indian Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that Indian President Draupadimurmu will represent India at the funeral of the late Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and express condolences in the name of the government.


On July 25, India's newly elected President Drupadi Murmu  was sworn in at the Parliament House in New Delhi.


The inauguration ceremony was presided over by Chief Justice Ramanna of India, and was attended by the Speakers of both houses of the Federal Assembly, Prime Minister Narendra Modi, members of the Council of Ministers, state governors and chief ministers.



On July 25, India's newly elected President Drupadi Murmu (front) reviewed the honor guard of the three services at the Presidential Palace in New Delhi. 


In his inaugural speech, Murmu called on fellow citizens to work together to make India a strong and self-reliant nation, and hoped that women would contribute more to nation-building.


The results of the Indian presidential election were announced on the 21st, and the candidate of the ruling National League for Democracy, Murmu, won the election held on the 18th.


Draupadi Murmu 15th President of India

On July 25, India's newly elected President Drupadi Murmu (front right) reviewed the honor guard of the three services at the Presidential Palace in New Delhi. 

Murmu was born in the tribal area of ​​Odisha in June 1958. He joined the Bharatiya Janata Party in 1997. He has served as a parliamentarian and government minister in Odisha for many years, and served as the governor of Jharkhand from 2015 to 2021.


The President of India is the head of state and the supreme commander of the armed forces. He is elected by elected members of the federal parliament and state legislatures for a five-year term.


Murmuu, 64, said after being sworn in parliament, "I started my life journey in a small tribal village"  "In terms of my background, even getting a primary education seemed like a Dream."


"Despite the many obstacles, my determination has remained firm and I became the first woman in my village to go to university," she said.


Analysts say the election of Murmu is likely to help Modi expand his roots in impoverished tribal areas ahead of Prime Minister Narendra  Modi's 2024 re-election campaign.


"Her presidency is a historic moment for India, especially for the poor, marginalized and oppressed," Modi tweeted after Murmuu's remarks.


Murmuu said her election as president would give hope to those who have been left behind by India's economic development in recent years.


India's prime minister reportedly has executive powers, but the president can dismiss some parliamentary bills for reconsideration, and the president also plays a guiding role in forming the government.



Draupadi Murmu is India’s second female president. Everyone is surprised by the achievements of this female politician, but few people know about her tragic life experience.


When her political career was booming, she lost her father and son. One of her two sons died tragically in a car accident, and the other died inexplicably; her mother and brothers also died one after another.


Why did they die?


Who is this female politician?


Why was she able to defeat 15 male opponents as a woman in the fierce competition?

And why can she create multiple records in Indian politics, and what kind of political means does she possess?

Her name is Delaupadi Murmu, and once she is sworn in, the formerly unknown woman will become India's second-ever female president.


The reason why she is being followed by so many people now is because the woman who will be in charge of the entire Indian government agency has no special political background, even came from a poor mountain village in India, and is not a high caste.


But even so, she is still selected as the presidential candidate of the National League for Democracy in the 2022 election. After winning a majority of the vote, Murmu made history by becoming the first and second woman to win a tribal chief.


And when she was sworn in, she was also the youngest president to date and the first to be born after India's independence.

But compared with her present brilliant political achievements, her background and experience are much more tragic.


Born in poverty, the political road is smooth sailing

Murmu was born in Odisha on June 20, 1958. This district is one of the 30 districts of Odisha in India. It is the largest area in Odisha. 

As of 2011, it also occupies the largest area in India. 10% of the population.


Although the population here is large, it is very poor. Even now, many homes still burn charcoal, and they have to go to the wells at the head of the village for drinking water. They live in old houses from decades ago. It's hard to say.


Surprisingly, this area is a famous tourist destination and a famous mining area, but most people can only rely on farming as their main economic income.


The life of farmers there is completely invisible to the shadow of today's society. There is basically no infrastructure. People still follow the traditional farming and way of life. If natural and man-made disasters are encountered, the life of farmers is even more difficult.


This can be seen from their literacy level. In the Indian census, the average literacy rate of the locals is only 72%, while the female literacy rate is even lower at 65%.


Because people there can't afford children to study at all, and in India, there is a difference between men and women, and you can see it.


Compared with many local women, Murmu is undoubtedly lucky, because she is fortunate to go to school and complete her education.

Murmu came from a local Santal tribe

The Santal is the largest tribe in the Indian state of Jharkhand in terms of population, but is also present in other regions, notably in Nepal and Bhutan.


And Murmu's grandfather and father were both elected decision makers at the local RPI agency. The RPI is a committee of five local officials and belongs to the village local self-government system of Indian villages as distinct from cities and suburban municipalities.


Therefore, the elected decision-maker is equivalent to the head of the autonomous township in China. It submits orders from government officials and manages local village communities.


But the family of small officials in poor areas did not bring much political help to Murmu, nor did they lead her to the path of politics. After all, it is not easy for a woman to enter politics in India.


So after graduating from the arts major at Lamadeville Women's College, Delaupadi Murmu became a teacher. She loved her industry so much that she became an assistant professor at the Institute of Comprehensive Education.

After a period of time, Drupadi Murmu entered the irrigation department of the Odisha government and officially began her office and political career.


During this time, for the first time in her life, she began to understand the workings of government departments.


So in 1997, Drapadi Murmu joined the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and she was soon appointed as a BJP MP.


With his enormous effort and dedication, it took only three years for Drupadi Murm to become the BJP chairman.


No one knows why a woman can be promoted so quickly in a political party, it may have something to do with the BJP's proposition.


In any case, the tribal politician, Drapadi Murmu, is starting to make his mark in Indian politics.


That is, in 2000, after she became the chairman of the BJP, Murmu's career was even smoother.

From 6 March 2000 to 6 August 2002, she served in Odisha as Minister of State for Commerce and Transport independently.


In addition, he also engaged in fishery and animal resource development from August 2002 to May 2014.


These sectors, in India, are really one of the core sectors, and the fact that a woman in Murmu can be as stable as a mountain in these positions and still make a lot of difference is a clear indication of her versatility and political ability in her political career.

Soon she was promoted to the national vice president of the BJP.


During this period, Drapadi Murmu lived more and more well, and got married and had children. It can be said that the career and family had a good harvest, but the good luck was gone.


Whop were Father, son, mother and brother of Draupadi Murmu?

Her husband, Shyam Charan Murmu, was a banker. The conditions are quite good, and the status and status of Murmu can be considered a match.


Soon after their marriage, the couple welcomed three children, two sons and a daughter.


Such Murm became the "big winner in life" in the eyes of ordinary people, but fate is always joking, just when everything seemed to be fine, misfortune came.


The couple were happily married in 2010, but they lost a son, and no one seems to know what happened at the time.


The couple was immersed in the loss of their son, but before they could come out of their grief, three years later, in 2013, their other son also died in a car accident.


The loss of two sons within three years of each other was a devastating blow indeed for parents Delau Pardi and Shyam.


But fortune and misfortune do not come singly, and misfortune does not come singly.

Things soon took a turn for the worse for Draupadi Murmu, whose husband, Shyam Charan Murmu, died of cardiac arrest in 2014.


The death of her husband may have been caused by the deaths of two sons, and now only Murmu is the only one supporting the whole family.


She had to carry all the grief of her life alone, and it was a terrifying phase for the politician.


Only her daughter is with her now, as she lost her mother and a brother between 2009 and 2015.


At that time, people only saw her political ascension, and perhaps ignored the darkness in her life for more than ten years.


However, despite all the traumatic events, Draupardi managed to pull herself together, continue her work in her life, and devote more of her energies to politics.

On May 18, 2015, Drapadi Murmu became the governor of Jharkhand and the first female governor of Jharkhand, a historic feat in her life and in Indian politics .


Additionally, Draupardi is the first female tribal leader of Odisha to be appointed governor of a state in India.


Because the BJP was in power for most of its six-year term as governor in the Jharkhand government. The BJP was in power in the federal government throughout her term.


In 2017 Drapadi Murmu was drawn into another major event, the Pasargadi campaign against amendments to the Tribal Lands Act.

At the time, Indian authorities were planning to revise two tenancy laws of 1908 and 1949, two original laws that guaranteed the rights of tribal communities over their lands.


Under current law, land transactions can only be conducted between tribes, while the new amendments give tribes rights to allow the government to use tribal land for commercial purposes and lease tribal land.


Proposed bills to amend existing laws have been approved by the Jharkhand Legislative Assembly, and the bills were sent for approval in November 2016.


But with this modification, the government undoubtedly touched the rights of the tribe, so the tribe people strongly opposed the proposed law and began to hold protests against the proposed amendment to the tenancy law.


In one incident, protests turned violent, with police violently cracking down on the tribe, resulting in the death of a tribal man. More than 200 people, including tribal rights activist Father Stan Swami, have been charged with criminal charges.

Murmu has been criticized for being soft on police aggression against the tribe during the campaign.


According to women's tribal rights activist Aloka Kujur, she was expected to speak to the government in support of the tribes, but that didn't happen, instead she called on the leaders of the Pasargadi movement to give up their faith in the constitution.


In total, Murmu received 192 memoranda opposing the amendments to the bill, when Opposition Leader Hemant Soren had said the BJP government wanted to secure tribal lands through two amendments to benefit businesses.


The opposition parties, Congress, etc. exerted enormous pressure on the bill.


On May 24, 2017, Murmu backed down and refused to agree to the bills, returning the bill to the state along with the memo she received, which was later withdrawn in August 2017.


No one knows why Murm, who came from the tribe, did this, but it can be seen that although she is a woman, she insists on her political decision, and the tough method is evident.


Take part in elections and win in one fell swoop

In June 2022, the BJP nominated Murmu as the Indian presidential candidate of the NLD for the 2022 general election the following month.


During the campaign, Murmu visited multiple states to seek support for her candidacy.


During this period, several opposition parties such as JMM, BSP, Shiv Sena, etc. all announced their support for her candidacy before the vote. This is unexpected.



Draupadi Murmu won Indian presidential elections with how many votes?

And on July 21, 2022, Murmu won 676,803 electoral votes, or 64.03% of the total, in the 2022 presidential election.


That gave her a majority to become the 15th Indian president in 21 of 28 states, including the federal possession of Pondicherry, beating common opposition candidate Yashwant Sinha. She was sworn in by the Chief Justice of India, Mr. NV Ramana, in the central hall of the Parliament.


It's unbelievable to see Drapadi Murmu on her way to becoming the female president of India and the setbacks she has suffered in her life.


Draupadi Murmu Presided over Oath Ceremony of Chief justice of India DY Chandrachud

Chandrachud sworn in as India's 50th chief justice. Supreme Court justice Dhananjaya Y Chandrachud was sworn in as India's 50th justice minister on Wednesday. President Murmu presided over the swearing-in ceremony for him at Bhavan Square.


His illustrious father Y V Chandrachud was the longest serving Chief Justice of India, serving as Chief Justice from 22 February 1978 to 11 July 1985.


Justice Chandrachud will serve as Chief Prosecutor for a two-year term until November 10, 2024. Supreme Court justices retire at age 65.


His successor, Uday Umesh Lalit, recommended him as the central successor on October 11. President Drapadi Murmu appointed him as the next chief prosecutor on October 17.


Justice Chandrachud was born on November 11, 1959 and was promoted to the Supreme Court on May 13, 2016.


He was a member of several constitutional judges and landmark judgments of the Supreme Court, including on issues such as Ayodhya land disputes, the right to privacy and adultery.


Justice Chandrachud was also one of the judges to make the seminal judgment on the legalization of same-sex relationships after partially overturning Section 377 of the IPC, the validity of the Aadhaar scheme and the Sabarimala issue.


Recently, a court headed by him expanded the scope and corresponding rules of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act (MTP) to include unmarried women who are 20-24 weeks pregnant.


The court, led by Justice Chandrachard, also passed several directives to ease the suffering people are facing during the COVID-19 crisis, calling last year's brutal second wave of the pandemic a "national crisis".


Most recently, he was one of two justices on the full Supreme Court panel who objected to the use of a "circulatory process" for the opinions of its members on Supreme Court appointments.


He was a judge of the Bombay High Court from March 29, 2000 until his appointment as Chief Justice of the Allahabad High Court on October 31, 2013.


Judge Chandrachud was appointed Senior Counsel by the Bombay High Court in June 1998 and served as Solicitor General in the same year until his appointment as Judge.


After earning a BA (Hons) in Economics from St. Stephen's College, New Delhi, Judge Chandrachud received his LL.B. from the University of Delhi Campus Law Center and his LL.M. and J.D. from Harvard Law School, USA.


He has practiced as a solicitor in the Supreme Court and the Bombay High Court and is a Visiting Professor of Comparative Constitutional Law at the University of Bombay.


On July 21, local time, Murmu, the candidate selected by the Indian ruling coalition, won the 15th presidential election and was elected as the new president of India. On the 25th, she was sworn in.


From a tribal girl to a female president, Murmu's "turning over" experience seems to have given hope to some Indian indigenous residents and some female groups who are socially and economically disadvantaged.


But analysts believe that the symbolic significance of Murmu's presidency to the national unity is more obvious. India's chronic diseases such as the strict social hierarchy and the low status of women are still difficult to be cured in the short term.


Did Draupadi Murmu swore in as India's second female president?

On the 25th, India's newly elected President Murmu was sworn in at the Parliament Building.


The inauguration ceremony was presided over by Chief Justice Ramana of India, and was attended by the Speakers of both houses of the Federal Assembly, Prime Minister Narendra Modi, members of the Council of Ministers, state governors and chief ministers.


In his inaugural speech, Murmu called on fellow citizens to work together to make India a strong and self-reliant nation, and hoped that women would contribute more to nation-building.


"Murmu devoted her life to serving the society and empowering the poor, oppressed and marginalized. Her understanding and compassion for policies will greatly benefit India." After being elected president, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi told Moore Mu gave a high evaluation.


Was The "Politically Correct" Presidential Candidate?

India's first tribal-born president, India's youngest president, India's second female president, Murmu, 64, is headed for the presidency with multiple records.


When was Draupadi Murmu born?

Draupadi Murmu was born in 1958 in the Santhal tribe in the state of Odisha, India. This tribe is one of the oldest and largest tribal groups in India. The tribal people generally have a low standard of living and lack of knowledge and skills. But because Murmu was born into the family of a tribal chief, he had the opportunity to receive a modern education.


Was Draupadi Murmu was originally a school teacher?

In 1997, she joined the Bharatiya Janata Party and officially joined the political arena. Since then, she has held public office many times in the government department and became the first female governor of Jharkhand in 2015.


During his tenure as governor, Murmu opened the governor's office to people from all communities and all walks of life, providing ordinary people with effective channels for complaints or suggestions. At the same time, she is also very concerned about social issues such as unfair treatment of Indian women and unfair laws in tribal communities.


Due to her sympathy for the people, Murmu has accumulated a good reputation over the years: the people of Odisha affectionately called her "the daughter of the earth". Jagat Prakash Nada, the chairman of the BJP, described her as a "A breath of fresh air in Indian politics".


According to some experts, deputy director of the Center for South Asian Studies at Fudan University, meeting the criteria of "political correctness" in India, a diverse country, is a major advantage of becoming the president of India.


Draupadi Murmu 15th Indian President

"Murmu, who was born in a tribe and is a woman, is just a female politician who conforms to 'political correctness' and has little controversial political experience." Some experts said, "At the same time, due to changes in family life, Murmu and others.

In 2008, she gradually established a political image of being devoted to politics for life, eradicating corruption, and serving the people wholeheartedly. This is quite similar to the current Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi.”


Limited impact on Indian politics

For a long time, people can always see the busy figure of the Indian Prime Minister in domestic and foreign affairs. What role does the President of India play?


The Indian constitution stipulates that the term of the president is every five years. He is the nominal head of state of India, but does not enjoy real power. State power is controlled by the government cabinet composed of the majority party in the parliament.


Although Indian laws have given the president certain powers, judging from the actual operation of power, for a long time, the Indian president has often acted in vain.


However, he also said that the Indian president is not just a hypothetical head of state, and he usually plays a key role in political crises. When India is threatened by war, external aggression or internal armed riots, the President has the power to declare a state of emergency. If the government is paralyzed, the president can perform the functions of head of government. In addition, the president also has the power to veto bills proposed by the government, or to appoint political parties to form a cabinet in the event of a stalemate in the general election.


"Now, the president and the prime minister of India belong to the same political party, and there is no situation where the president and the prime minister belong to different parties and the balance of power occurs." Lin Minwang believes that the symbolic significance of the current Indian president is greater. and the government cabinet may have limited influence.


Murmu once said: "I come from a society that views women very harshly, and they question any woman who steps out of the house."


Some Indians believe that Murmu's election is a historic moment in India's 75-year long history of independence. However, whether the symbolic identity of the president will bring about substantial changes in the lives of women and indigenous people in India, at present, may still be a question mark.


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