March 2020

Employment in Australia or Australian Jobs 

People often encounter the concerns of students and parents about future work. They don't know which direction to choose. Especially when the students 'own interests are not the same as the parents' interests, the mentality collapses. In fact, people don't think this is a very important matter. The trend of employment is always changing. This is the norm. People think it is important to respect your own ideas. However, looking at government data may clear up a bit of the fog and see what is happening in reality.

The Australian government publishes a booklet every year to introduce the employment situation in Australia. It not only summarizes the work profile of the states, but also talks about the needs and skills of future jobs. This is a trend that can be referred to when working in Australia, especially those studying abroad / immigrants who are still struggling to study:

The overall situation of the 2019 Australian Jobs report is as follows:

State Overview

  1. New South Wales (4,054,600 jobs): Australia's highest employment rate.
  2. Victoria (3,339,200 jobs): Australia's strongest employment growth rate in the past five years.
  3. Queensland (2,491,300 jobs): 34% of staff in the state have certificate III or higher vocational education qualifications.
  4. South Australia (843,700 jobs): 80% of the state's jobs are concentrated in its capital city, Adelaide.
  5. Western Australia (1,351,900 jobs): More than 110,000 jobs in the state are related to mining.
  6. Tasmania (249,500 jobs): More than half of the jobs in the state are outside the capital city of Hobart.
  7. Northern Territory (133,700 jobs): 80% of jobs in the state are full-time.
  8. Leadership (228,200 jobs): The state's staff has the highest level of education in Australia.

  • Highest employment rate
  • Highest employment rate in each state
  • Occupation category with the highest overall employment rate

Future Employment trends in Oz

Like China and many other countries, Australia is also facing an aging population and has delayed the retirement age to 65. We are often surprised to see that many elderly people in Australia (or what we call "elderly people"), 60 or 70 years old, are still working hard.

Unlike us, many elderly people in Australia speak of work as a pleasure. In an “individual” education environment, the elderly in Australia often live alone instead of having to live with their children. Pro-enemy; not only do they think so, their parents also think so: put their comfort and happiness first.) So for many elderly people, "delayed retirement" finds something to do for themselves and keeps them busy. It is also a good choice for them. In addition, seeing other people and engaging with society every day is also a way to slow down aging.
Working in Australia
In addition to the aging population, high technology and production automation also seem to be a concern for Australians. Many people worry whether their jobs will soon be replaced by robots. Their worries are unjustified: surveys have shown that many factories have already begun this trend, and more and more low-end labor is declining. For example, many physical activities that rely on physical strength are gradually being simplified and replaced. However, some surveys have shown that although mechanization is an irreversible trend, Australia's employment rate has continued to increase year after year, and it does not seem to have much impact.

People do not believe that mechanization can replace all jobs (types of work). At this point, people are very happy (cheeky) to see that the Australian Government has written similar content: They believe that not all jobs can be done " automation". On the one hand, because some jobs are difficult to be replaced by machines, or the cost of replacement is too high, it is better to continue to use labor. 
On the other hand, automation and mechanization also bring many new job opportunities, such as 3D printing design, big data analysis and other professions; at the same time, all types of staff can learn to use new skills through continuous learning.
Automation can save the time of employees and workers without having to always stay in front of the machine. While the machine helps them work, it also frees their hands and gives them time to do other (more) work.
Future Working Trends in Australia

What are the future Australian working trends?

The Australian government report points out that what will be needed in the future is more complex and diversified skills (the benefits of dual degrees or interdisciplinary studies can be seen here, and walking on multiple legs). This "complex" and "plurality" means that while we "operate the machine", we also need problem-solving skills. On top of this, creativity, the ability to make complex judgements, social interaction, emotional intelligence, and other interpersonal skills can be considered true "complete". This "professional technology + personal ability" package can ensure that our work will not be easily surpassed and replaced by machines or artificial intelligence.
Employment in Australia, work in Oz

Many universities have launched dual-degree or undergraduate courses to ensure that students can have as many interdisciplinary options as possible while receiving education. This cake is still very fragrant.

In life and work, we always come across people who have a strong ability to learn and work, but they don’t understand a little emotional intelligence and no human accidents. The Australian government's ability to work in the future refers more to "human" skills than to "work" skills.

The Australian Government has proposed the following 10 skills for future job needs:
1. Creativity, originality and initiative
2. Analytical thinking and innovation
3. Active learning
4. Technology design and programming
5. Complex problem-solving
6. Critical thinking and analysis
7. Leadership and social influence (force)
8. Emotional intelligence
9. Reasoning
10. Resilience, stress tolerance and flexibility

The simplest and most rude question is: In which industries are you looking for a job after graduation?

The following industries are best to look for after graduation:
  1.  Architecture and Building (Engineering)
  2.  Education
  3.  Engineering and Related Technologies
  4.  Agriculture, Environmental and Related Studies
  5.  Health
  6.  Management and Commerce
  7.  Food, Hospitality and Personal Services
  8.  Society and Culture
  9.  Natural and Physical Sciences
  10.  Creative Art
  11.  Information Technology

What will be the career trend in the next five years (to May 2023)?

  1. Aged and Disabled Carers
  2. Registered nurses
  3.  Child Carers
  4.  Software and Applications Programmers
  5.  Waiters (catering industry) waiters
  6.  Education Aides
  7.  Chefs
  8.  Primary School Teachers
  9.  Kitchen hands
  10.  Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers
Jobs in Australia

Another simple and rude question: What are the so-called immigrant occupations?

Analyze it according to the basic categories:

  • Construction Engineering Management / Supervision Early Childhood Education
  •  Early Childhood Education Management
  •  Preschool Teacher, Elementary School Teacher
  •  Middle School Teacher, Special Needs Teacher Nurse
  •  Registered Nurse Health Institution Management Accounting Architect
  • Landscape Architect Agricultural Consultant
  •  Agricultural Scientist Software and Application Programmer Lawyer Car Maintenance Worker 
  • Carpenter
  • Joiner

However, it should be noted that the Australian government's immigration policy and occupation (it's a child's face) is to say that it changes, these are for your reference only and cannot guarantee all the actual conditions.

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Popularity of Civil Services World over. 900,000 people in India vie for 1,000 positions

Sangram Singh has graduated from the prestigious Nehru University in India for one year and is currently receiving pre-service training for civil servants as a Deputy Commissioner of Police in Uttar Pradesh. Indian civil servants specifically refer to middle and senior officials who have a certain decision-making power in the government. Once admitted, it means that they can enter the upper class and are real social elites. So many Indians, especially college students, are willing to work hard.

Singh told this reporter: "The position of a civil servant is not something that can be won simply by passing an exam. I choose a civil servant as a lifelong career with inherent motivation to contribute to social welfare. This profession gives me ample opportunities To solve the problems encountered by the grassroots. "

Singh described the civil service exam as "the most difficult state test in India." First, the exam size is large and the admission rate is low. About 900,000 people took the test this year, but there were only 1,000 positions. Second, there are no qualifications for the exam, and competition is particularly fierce. In India, there are no qualifications for civil service exams, and different professions and education qualifications can be taken. The competition is fierce. Third, there is no outline for the exam, so there is no way to review it.

Judging from the examination process, the Indian civil service examination is divided into three stages: preliminary examination, main examination and interview. The first test is to test the basic common sense of the candidates. The main test is to write three strategies. In addition, there are qualification exams in Hindi and English. The interview is to examine the comprehensive quality of the candidates. The entire exam takes one year and covers domestic and international current affairs, economics, psychology, etc. In Singh's words, this process is painful and long, a contest of knowledge and a test of patience and perseverance.

High difficulty means high risk, and high risk means high profit. This is evident from Singh's satisfaction with the treatment. As a new civil servant, his monthly salary is 60,000 rupees (1 rupee is about 0.1 yuan), and the government gives a house with a car and a driver. In addition, there are various subsidies. In addition to statutory holidays, each year can enjoy one month of paid leave, 20 days of medical leave, 20 days of half paid leave and so on.

However, the workload of civil servants is also high. So Indians say that doing this job requires political ideals, as well as determination and wisdom. Attracted by civil service treatment and enthusiasm for national public affairs, Indian college students and various groups with stable occupations have become the main force of the national civil service examination, especially the college student group, and have enough time to prepare for civil service examination. Staya, a student at the University of Delhi's political department, is part of the civil service examination army. He told this reporter that he was preparing for the examination of a central civil servant, hoping to be a diplomat. Staya said that because there is no exam outline, there is only a comprehensive review, and at the same time focus on the exam questions that are tested each year.
Staya said he wanted to try his luck despite the crowds of canopy bridges.
Civil Services popularity in India and around the world

Students are studying in the library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Wang Xiaobo Figure

Mexico: Civil servant onboarding from multiple sources

"There is no such test." Anna Garcia, a civil servant in the city government of Teorojocan, Mexico, responded to this reporter's question about the "civil service exam".

In many local governments and public sectors in Mexico, grass-roots civil servants are mostly recommended by senior officials, while senior officials are selected by the highest officials of the local government. Local officials come to power through elections. Those who contribute to the campaign will often be promised positions. Once local officials are elected to power, they will honor their promises to those people. Of course, if the people they support lose the election, their expectations will inevitably be "empty."

In addition, there are still a few positions that are reserved for "hereditary" children in the system. Only a small number of positions are offered for open competition. Anna has joined the ranks of government civil servants from her campaign assistant status.

The Mexican government has three levels of civil servants: federal, state, and county. Data show that there are about 1.7 million federal-level civil servants, 2.23 million at the state level, and 990,000 at the county level. Anna said her experience was not uncommon among third-tier government civil servants.

Although there is no "national test" or "provincial test" for civil servants, some government agencies and subordinate agencies recruit regularly or irregularly, and the content and form of the assessment vary. Paula entered the civil service system through professional examinations. Her previous job was to assess the integrity of public officials in the police system. "After submitting the resume, the personnel in the unit's personnel department will meet with the qualified candidate and then perform the assessment. My assessment content at that time included psychology, sociology, polygraph, etc."

Regarding federal civil service positions, Paula admitted that it was "too difficult to enter." Each department or agency has its own set of competition and employment opportunities, and there are not many opportunities. Regarding salary, Paula said that if it is a good position, no one is willing to resign; for a poor position, the salary is really unsatisfactory.

It is reported that the salary of civil servants varies greatly depending on the rich or poor in their state capital or prefecture. The salary of grassroots civil servants in most regions is generally low. The city where Anna is located is at a medium level. Newly hired civil servants have a fixed monthly salary of only more than 5,000 Mexican pesos (1 dollar is about 18 pesos). Department-level cadres are 10,000 to 20,000 pesos and bureau-level cadres are 25,000 to 30,000 pesos , Mayor or state official 30,000 to 40,000 pesos. In the capital city of Mexico City or other developed regions, the standard for civil service salaries is twice or more than this number. For example, the monthly salary of a Mexican city is more than $ 5,500. According to the Mexican "Daily News", the highest paid public officials in Mexico are the justices of the Supreme Court. They have an annual salary of up to 6.77 million Mexican pesos, about twice the annual salary of President Peña.

Although grassroots civil servants are not very competitive in fixed wages compared with other industries, they enjoy advantages in medical treatment and social security. They can enjoy the medical services provided by the National Civil Service Social Security and Welfare Bureau. This service Coverage is small, waiting times are short, and budgets are more plentiful.

Anna told this reporter that some time ago, her hand bone fracture was identified as a "non-emergency" case, and an appointment for corrective surgery was waited for 5 months. If she participated in ordinary social security, the "non-emergency" case may even have to wait for 8 months. As for the price of private hospitals, it is not acceptable to the average working class.

Germany: College students love "iron rice bowls"

Germany currently has approximately 1.84 million civil servants.
In Germany, being a civil servant means stable work and good treatment. Once hired, work 40 hours per week, enjoy 13 months of monthly salary and 30 days of paid leave until retirement. It can't be fired, it is a veritable "iron rice bowl".

According to the statistics of the German Civil Service Association in January 2017, the monthly salary of junior civil servants is about 2,000 euros (1 euro is about 7.38 yuan), intermediate is about 3,000 euros, senior civil servants are about 4,000 euros, and the higher one can reach 8,000 to 10,000 euros.

In addition, in Germany, where taxes and various types of statutory insurance are not low, civil servants do not need to pay endowment, medical and unemployment insurance, but they also enjoy pensions and medical subsidies.
According to German "Manager" magazine statistics, 40-year civil servants have an average monthly pension of 3,000 euros.
But 45-year ordinary workers have an average monthly pension of only 1,314 euros, less than half of civil servants. In addition, civil servants receive an additional spousal allowance of 133 euros per month.

Unlike the unified enrollment of other countries, Germany adopts the method of enrollment on demand. Once a civil servant position in an institution becomes vacant, the government department will publish recruitment information on the news media, and the competent department organizes examinations in accordance with the law and selects merit based on merit. Examination methods are different.

Taking the federal government recruitment as an example, the primary election is divided into a written test and an interview.

The written test is mostly an administrative test question, which examines the comprehensive logical ability of the candidate; the interview will examine some common sense issues related to public services, such as the opinion of the local government. After passing the interview, the selected candidates will receive a one-month training in Berlin.

In addition to studying the code of civil servants and regulations of various departments, they will also conduct simulation project training, that is, simulation planning for some specific municipal projects.

After the completion of the training, candidates will welcome the final round of elimination-attending a job fair organized by various federal government departments.
Only by being selected by the specific employment department can one finally become a civil servant.

An Ernst & Young poll in 2016 showed that 32% of German university students want to become public servants after graduation. Of the 3,500 respondents, 63% ranked job security as the most important consideration.

Klaus Dadestadt, chairman of the German Civil Servants Association, said that in the economic downturn, young people pay more attention to job stability, and "civil servants" are undoubtedly attractive careers.

However, the German government has been downsizing the civil service in recent years to streamline government agencies. The traditional state-owned communications sector has been corporateized and privatized, such as Deutsche Telekom, and its employees are no longer part of the civil service. Some basic administrative tasks are also performed more by contractual staff.

According to the latest data from the German Federal Statistical Office, civil servants who enjoy the "iron rice bowl" account for only 40% of all public service personnel, and the remaining 60% are hired on a general contract basis. From 1991 to 2015, the civil service has shrunk by 18%.

"In response to issues such as the increase in immigration, the German public service is clearly understaffed, with a gap of up to 180,000 people," said Dadestadt.

Not only that, the aging trend of German civil servants is also becoming more and more obvious. Currently, only 18.8% of people are under 34, and 30.8% are over 55. After 20 years, the proportion of civil servants over 45 will reach 57%.

How to expand the number of civil servants in the future and give young people more opportunities to enter the civil service industry is an urgent task to improve public services.

Australia: Immigrants also have the opportunity to be public servant

There is no national uniform civil service examination in Australia. Except for batches of college entrance examinations each year, most of them are randomly taken.

Each department of the Commonwealth Government of Australia has its own hiring standards. Generally, a government department issues job advertisements after a vacancy occurs. Applicants provide application materials, which generally include self-statements, mainly by stating their past experience and their characteristics to prove I am suitable for this job. In addition, you need to prepare a resume. Relevant review committees make preliminary selections based on the application materials and determine the interview list. Generally, 3 to 5 people will be selected for each recruitment position after the preliminary selection.
Civil Services in Australia for Australian Government Servants
A man who has worked in many states in Australia, has worked for the Australian Federal Government's Department of Environment and Energy for many years. He explained to this reporter that normally, the review committee is composed of three people, one of whom is the head of the employment department.

One person is from another department of the unit, and the other person is from an external unit and is responsible for monitoring the fairness of the recruitment process.

If members of the review committee have relatives or acquaintances with the applicant, they must be avoided.

In addition, in order to demonstrate fairness, the Australian civil service system also requires that at least a certain percentage of ethnic minorities, women, immigrants, graduates and people with disabilities be recruited each year.
Civil Services in Australia

Generally, after the interview is completed, the review committee will give a comprehensive score to the applicants based on the application materials, interview scores, and evaluation of the recommender. Those with the highest scores will be accepted first.

In the Australian civil service, applicants are generally required to have acquired citizenship or have applied for citizenship.

People with permanent residency can apply for non-core sectors or short-term employment within two years, but personnel recruited by core sectors such as the Department of Defence must be Australian citizens. In addition, Australian civil service positions usually do not require applicants to have age, gender, height, or ethnicity requirements.

Similar to other countries, Australian civil servants usually work more stable and their income is guaranteed. Once a civil servant, the government will not easily fire unless it voluntarily resigns.
This is more attractive for people who tend to be stable.
In recent years, with the economic downturn and rising unemployment, college graduates have increasingly favored civil servants. In 2015, more than 3,000 college students applied to the Ministry of Environment and Energy.
Only 70 people were hired, and the competition was fierce.
Australian Cultural Language and Jobs Comparison
In general, due to language and cultural advantages, Australians are more enthusiastic about working in policy sectors, while immigrants, especially Asians, prefer to work in technology, engineering and other related sectors.

Australian National University graduate Liam Milligan told this reporter that the foreign affairs, finance, central bank and other departments are very popular with young people, and the annual elimination rate is very high.

However, in general, the number of applicants for civil service positions is rarely hot and cold due to the small difference in treatment. It is understood that in Australia, ordinary people usually do not look at the work of public servants differently. To them, civil servants are just one of many jobs.

When publicly recruiting civil servants in Australia, they usually clarify the level and salary range. The treatment of successful applicants generally starts from the minimum wage level at this level, but you can also make reasonable requirements based on your previous work experience and income level, or even take it all at once. To the high end of wages.

Guo Linhai said that the salaries of workers in the federal government are slightly higher than the local average income, but after a certain position has been working long enough, wage growth will be limited. To earn higher income, unless you apply for a higher-level position, which is equivalent to finding a new job, because internal promotions are relatively rare.

In the Australian civil service, department heads often do not have personnel and financial power, and job promotion depends mainly on personal ability and willingness. Therefore, it is often seen that some people have both ability and experience, but are not interested in promotion, and have been working in a job for many years.

In recent years, the recruitment of Chinese civil servants has remained high, and the competition for the hottest jobs has even been “one for every mile”.

Stable work and perfect security systems have always been one of the main reasons why many people choose to apply for civil servants.

Civil servants of various countries compete, Indians cry

Due to the title of iron rice bowl, civil servants are enviable professions in many countries and are sought after by the public.
Is it difficult for civil servants to test? Is the treatment so high in the legend? Are there any systems or measures to ensure that they are self-contained?

How difficult is the civil service exam in each country?

 India: "The hardest exam in the world".
Being a civil servant in India is considered "very face-saving" and is the industry of Emperor Guangzong. Favorable treatment and high social status are the main reasons for Indians to apply for civil servants.

In India, the number of civil servants recruited by the state is very small, the competition is extremely fierce, and it is said to be "the hardest test in the world". The "National Examination" is organized by the Indian Federation of Civil Servants Commission. Once a year, hundreds of thousands of people apply each time, and only 300 to 600 people are admitted. The admission rate is about one-thousandth. The exam is divided into three stages: preliminary test, main test and interview. The content includes current affairs, history, geography, mathematics, physics, chemistry, flora and fauna, and psychology. Successful candidates are assigned to the administrative, diplomatic and police departments of the central government based on their performance. Although the examination is extremely strict, it is relatively fair, which has become an opportunity for many children to change their destiny and enter the ranks of the national elite.

South Korea: Fierce competition spawns tuition industry

Occupational stability coupled with good social security and retirement systems, civil servants are also referred to as "god occupations" in Korea. The Civil Service Examination, the Judicial Examination and the Foreign Affairs (Diplomatic) Examination are also referred to as the three most popular examinations in Korea.

Due to the fierce competition, many Koreans will take special tuition classes before the exam, which has also led to a three major exam tuition industry.

The tuition fee for such tuition courses is generally around 300,000 won (approximately 2,200 yuan), plus the teaching materials fee of more than 100,000 won, and the two-month tuition will cost at least 500,000 won.

In Seoul, tuition classes for the three major exams gathered together, and a "test village" was formed.

Thailand: Selection staged "choose a thousand miles"

Although there is no national enrollment test, the young people in Thailand are not enthusiastic about applying for civil servants, and the difficulty of obtaining them has also become increasingly difficult.
Taking 2012 as an example, the Bangkok municipal government recruited 79 new civil servants, and as a result, 67,000 college students signed up.
Among them, the number of applicants for the 15 positions of "General Administrator" is as many as 34,000. The Bangkok city government had so many people having a written test on the same day because they could not find the venue.

French civil servants enjoy no less than 25 types of subsidies: bicycle subsidies, clothing subsidies, shoe subsidies, small decorative subsidies, and strange subsidies such as subsidies for buying underwear or lost clothing.

Nowadays, in some post examinations that only require diplomas for secondary school graduation examinations, there are more and more master's examinations, and in the post examinations in the Senate Communication Room, there are actually doctors. This makes the test questions for all types of civil servants in France very demanding.

Australia: The number of procedures is staggering

Recruitment of civil servants in Australia is often divided into many parts, including telephone interviews, IQ tests, writing skills tests, laws and regulations tests, individual interviews, group interviews, etc.

Usually three interviewers will come during the interview At the same time, you, and these three interviewers will usually have a certain degree of attention, which must first be balanced from the gender, one person is the opposite sex of the other two.

From the source point of view, an interviewer must be from this In the other departments of the unit, one is the supervisor of the employing department, and the last one must be invited from an external unit to ensure mutual supervision.
Also, from the perspective of the locale, one of the three must have a native language other than English.

There are various requirements for interviewers from different sources, different races, and genders, so as to ensure that the final interview results can be more objective and fair.
Civil Servants of Australia











How good are civil servants in each country? United Kingdom: elite control, good benefits

The vast majority of British civil servants are top students from prestigious schools.

According to a 2012 survey report, 62% of the British Foreign Office's civil servants graduated from Oxford University and Cambridge University; and among senior civil servants in other departments, this proportion is as high as 55%.

British civil servants work from nine to five. Generally speaking, the work intensity is not large, the salary level is maintained at medium level, and the pension is still generous, which is an attractive occupation.

The starting salary of an ordinary civil servant is usually between 25,000 pounds and 27,000 pounds per year, and after working for four or five years, it can reach the level of 45,000 pounds per year.

According to a data disclosed at the beginning of 2014, London's per capita pre-tax salary in 2012 was 41,597 pounds, so the average salary of general public employees is basically the middle level in society.

Although British civil servants are not well paid, their benefits are good. Many can implement flexible working system or work from home, leisure and entertainment, child care and care, and even children's holiday activities, there are related guarantees. The main benefit is the pension.

Norway: average income, wins over stability

In Norway, the government, hospitals, schools, kindergartens and nursing homes belong to the public sector, and a person is an employee in terms of labor relations, regardless of whether he is employed in the public or private sector.

The salary of employees is related to education, seniority and position. The salary of the same position in the private sector will be about 200,000 crowns higher than that in the public sector. But public sector jobs are stable and the probability of unemployment is low.

Employees in both the public and private sectors in Norway participate in a unified and centralized universal insurance plan, with the same standard of payment, with 8.2% of wages paid as social security benefits.

Regardless of the industry, as long as you participate in social security and pay according to regulations, the same standards apply in terms of unemployment, medical care, maternity and family benefits.

However, in order to attract high-quality talents to work in the public sector, the government has some preferential policies for public sector employees in terms of pensions.

Singapore: Low pay and strict constraints

Singapore public agency employees include employees of ministries and other "statutory agencies" that provide public services. Salaries include fixed monthly wages and bonuses (generally equivalent to a fixed salary of 2 to 4 months).

Civil servants are roughly divided into four categories according to their jobs: the first category is professional and managerial talents that require a university degree.
The second category is executives.
The third category is technical staff. The fourth category is low-skilled jobs. Different classifications also mean different career paths and salary levels.

It is widely rumored that Singaporean civil servants are "highly paid", but it does not reflect the full picture of Singaporean civil service treatment.

In 2012, the monthly salary of the fourth category of civil servants was between S $ 860 (S $ 1 and US $ 0.75) and S $ 1,540, which is considered a low income locally.

Singapore's civil servants work steadily, but they have strict discipline and financial constraints. There are strict regulations on the use of public buses and official banquets, and personal financial conditions must also be strictly declared. And implement the "bare salary" principle, which is monetization. Even senior civil servants have no housing allocation, car allocation or other extra-wage subsidies, and pensions have gradually been abolished.

However, Singapore adheres to the concept of ruling the country by elites. For some positions, especially high-level positions that clearly need to show leadership skills, it still offers market-competitive salary and can be adjusted according to market conditions and capacity.
South Korea: Socially sought after, severely divided

There are many examination subjects for Korean civil servants, and the requirements for different levels of civil servants are different. It is more difficult to take the exam, so the basics of being a Korean civil servant are elites in various fields.

Due to their stable income, good working environment and high social status, they can also enjoy comprehensive pension and medical benefits after retirement. Korean civil servants have always been called "iron rice bowls."

South Korean general civil servants (except for government affairs such as the president and the prime minister) are divided into 9 levels, with the highest level being 1 and the lowest level being 9.

According to the Civil Service Annuity Law, Korean civil service income includes basic wages, subsidies and benefits. However, different levels of posts also have large income differences.

United States of America: Good welfare? High cost.

Compared with other industries, American civil servants are not well paid and their salary increases are slow, but they are rich in benefits, covering all aspects of life, death, illness and death, and they have high occupational stability.

For example, the benefits of state employees generally include medical insurance, dental insurance, disability insurance, life insurance and retirement benefits, which are much better than many large US companies, and they need to pay less for themselves.

Taken together, this profession has been able to lead a decent material life. Compared with other industries, its "comparative advantage" cannot be underestimated.

But in the eyes of the public, civil servants use taxpayer money to do things for taxpayers. And being an official, whether it is a big official or a small official, you have to give up some of the rights of ordinary citizens, such as the right to privacy.

The personal data of US civil servants, including salary and seniority, are readily available online. The law also expressly stipulates that gifts and banquets of more than 25 US dollars (about 155 yuan) cannot be accepted.

Corruption in any circumstances must be investigated and offenders severely punished in accordance with the bribery law.

There is a saying circulating in American folk:
"If you want to make a fortune at a company, do your studies to a university, you must be an official in the White House." It can be seen that in the United States, it is not feasible to become an official and to get rich.

In EU are European citizens holding a golden bowl?

In Europe, there is a group often referred to as "European citizens holding golden rice bowls". They are EU civil servants.

EU civil servants have high salaries and good benefits. Being an EU civil servant is the dream of many Europeans, but its threshold is also high.

In order to step into the ranks of EU civil servants, they must be smart, have a wealth of knowledge and experience, be familiar with European issues, and speak at least two foreign languages.

The European Union stipulates that civil servants cannot be admitted without open recruitment. The test not only examines the respondent's ability, knowledge, and understanding of the history, reality, and EU law of the candidate, but all candidates take the second language instead of their own language.

EU institutions currently have an average admission rate of only 3%. Once hired, a 9-month internship period will be required, and the internship period will not be considered a formal offer.

What are the measures of civil servants in various countries to fight corruption? Japan: Cleanliness can keep the job

In Japan, civil servants are a stable, hard to get fired, and able to take a normal vacation. However, the obligations that civil servants must abide by and various rules and regulations oblige Japanese civil servants to clean themselves, or they will lose their jobs.

In Japan, penalties are imposed on offenders among civil servants every year. In October 2010, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government announced the dismissal and warning of 18 civil servants.

One of the bus drivers directly collected the passenger's car money without putting it in the cash register on the bus.
The subway driver illegally received overtime pay of 800,000 yen ($ 1, or about 82 yen) for 7 years. A bus driver broke a red light.

According to relevant regulations, Japanese civil servants must obey the orders of their superiors, keep secrets, prohibit strikes, participate in political activities, drink and drive, and fight.

France: rules from speaking to wages

Compared with many European countries, the ranks of French civil servants are relatively large. Civil servants are a popular profession because of stable work and rich policy benefits.

However, France has strict management of civil servants, and higher-ranking civil servants are subject to more restrictions, and there are special demarcation lines from speaking in the mouth to receiving salaries.

The French Civil Servants 'General Regulations stipulate that civil servants' right to freedom of speech is limited due to the special nature of their profession, and is called "restraint to retain reservations."
Any point of view must be cautious and consistent with the position of the state and government.

In 1988, France enacted the Law on the Transparency of Political Life Funds and began to implement the property declaration system.

In the same year, it also established a "Transparency Committee on Political Life Funds" to review the property status of government members, parliament chairmen and mayors in accordance with the law, and Investigate property of unknown origin.

It is reported that at present, the declaration rate for persons with property declaration obligations in France is 100%. At present, the most serious case of being sentenced for suspecting the source of the property is the acceptance of bribes and kickbacks by the enterprise, and the officials involved are sentenced to 3 years in prison.

Singapore: Strong anti-corruption creates clean country

The Singaporean government enjoys a reputation of integrity in the world and is recognized as one of the "least corrupt countries".

Corruption has also become the "crossing rat" that the society as a whole despise. But today's excellence doesn't happen overnight.

The Corruption Investigation Bureau of Singapore is directly under the Prime Minister's Office. The Director is only responsible to the Prime Minister and is not under the direction of anyone else.

The powers of the officials of the Bureau of Investigation are strictly guaranteed by law, and their work procedures have detailed regulations to ensure that they act in accordance with the law.

On the premise of receiving reasonable allegations, reliable information, or reasonable doubts, the Bureau of Investigation may independently exercise its special powers of investigation, right of forced search, right to undocumented arrest, seizure and seizure of documents or items of property, and restrictions on transferring property.

In addition, the secret investigation power also enables the Bureau of Investigation to conduct investigations on top of the government on its own, without interference from other national agencies.

United States: Public interest over personal privacy

In the United States, being an official is not a good job. Those working in the US government must answer a "privacy" questionnaire.
The entire questionnaire is 7 pages long and contains 63 questions, covering everything from family member information, personal web pages, blogs to relationships with financial institutions, legal disputes that have been involved, and debt status.

The names and contact details of cohabiting partners are not missed. This "privacy" questionnaire didn't give officials more room: either to be open or to be an ordinary citizen.

On the basis of the "Code of Ethics for Government Officials and Employees" passed in 1965, the United States Congress enacted the "Government Conduct Ethics Act" in 1978. This was for formally establishing a system for declaration of official property, requiring all types of senior officials and spouses and children to declare truthfully Your own property and income.

The scope of property declaration covers almost all areas of life:

Property and its income, sales transactions, gifts, compensation, travel, debt, part-time income other than government work, and even the food produced and livestock raised must be declared.
EU: limited gray income

The European Commission, which employs more than 20,000 people, has a large number of civil servants but few cases of corruption. EU civil servants file very few cases each year for corruption and bribery.

What are the secrets of EU integrity? 

First of all, in terms of policy formulation, in order to avoid bribery of officials, the European Union has long considered the setting of the organizational structure and avoided the possibility of a single decision.

The new commission Juncker cabinet is adjusted in the division of duties of the EU's top official members, and no decision is counted by a certain official. This cuts off the root motive of bribing EU officials.
Showing Competition Between Civil Servants of Various Countries

In addition, senior officials of the European Commission also regularly change positions to avoid the monopoly power of individual officials.

In addition, for EU officials, the limited gray income is simply not comparable to the "golden rice bowl" that cannot be lost.

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