March 2022

 How does Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection cause?

Caused by respiratory syncytial virus or fusion virus (RSV). It belongs to paramyxovirus RNA type, with a diameter of 100-140nm. The nucleocapsid is composed of 32 symmetrical icosahedral capsids and has a capsule. Not destroyed by ether and chloroform. Human cells, diploid cells, and primary monkey kidney cells can be used to culture viruses and produce special fusion cells. With fluorescent antibody technology, the virus can be detected in the cytoplasm of infected cells. The disease is transmitted through the droplet respiratory tract and has the characteristics of wide spread, high infection rate, and long duration. It is spread and spread in various countries around the world, and a major epidemic occurs almost every year or every other year.
Diagram of respiratory syncytial virus infection

 Pathogenesis of Respiratory syncytial virus infection

Respiratory syncytial virus infection passes through air droplets or directly into the respiratory tract of susceptible persons. After RSV invades the body, it first multiplies in the nasopharyngeal mucosa and causes upper respiratory tract infection.

Infants with low immune function, the elderly, RSV can extend from the nasopharynx to bronchial and alveolar levels at all levels, and then develop severe bronchitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia.

Respiratory virus invades human ciliary epithelial cells on the surface of the respiratory tract, replicates and spreads within it and directly causes damage to infected cells, causing local lesions or producing symptoms of systemic toxins.

Some virus-infected tissue damage may be mediated by the body's immune response. For example, respiratory syncytial virus has the least direct damage to respiratory cilium epithelial cells, but can cause serious respiratory diseases in infants and young children; the most vulnerable age is mother-to-child transmission. 

The stage of the highest antibody level

Aafter the vaccination, the condition of the naturally infected person is worsened, all suggesting that the onset may be related to the immune response. The pathological changes of respiratory virus infection include nasal, pharyngeal, and laryngeal mucosal congestion, edema, exudation, and monocyte infiltration. Some cells can degenerate, necrotize, and fall off. Inclusion bodies can be seen in the cytoplasm or nucleus of epithelial cells. 
Diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection cause
The extent of the disease is related to the type, type and site of infection. After a few days, the epithelial cells can regenerate and return to normal. If the lesion involves the bronchioles, epithelial cell necrosis and exfoliation can occur. The bronchiolar wall has extensive mononuclear cell infiltration. Fibrin, cell debris and thick mucus can block the lumen and cause atelectasis and emphysema. 

Viral Pneumonia Manifestation

Viral pneumonia initially manifests as a progressive reduction of cilia, formation of vacuoles in epithelial cells, followed by degeneration of epithelial cells, substantial necrosis and collapse of alveoli, necrosis and thickening of alveolar walls, interstitial edema and monocytes, lymphocytes infiltration.
When bacterial infection is complicated, mucosal hyperemia, neutrophil infiltration, and mucopurulent secretion can be seen. In severe cases, pulmonary abscess, sepsis and purulent changes in multiple organs can occur.

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Top 8 Predictions for Blockchain Technology and crypto currency trends in 2019

Many people believe that blockchain, decentralized applications, Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies will continue to exist.
Nine years ago, the concept of digital currency was still very complicated and only a few people could understand it, but now it has developed into a mature business. Bitcoin traders and investors around the world are attracted by crypto exchanges, and they are always looking for additional ways to make more money. Lets us study the predictions for factual analysis as how they were and how far they came true to accurate set estimates further in future:

Top Crypto Currency Predictions to judge how they were

Although prices change almost daily, the total value of the crypto market is steadily increasing. The Bitcoin bubble of December 2017 quickly burst, leading to a bear market in 2018. However, the vast majority of investors remain optimistic and look to the future.

It's all thanks to blockchain technology, which powers the crypto world. Whether you are a Bitcoin trader or a blockchain enthusiast, here are the blockchain predictions for 2019 that will help you better understand the technology.

1. Blockchain will meet the Internet of Things

According to a report from International Data Corporation, many IoT companies will integrate blockchain technology into their products. IDC predicts that by 2019, 20% of IoT deployments will install blockchain services.

With the help of blockchain technology, they plan to improve services and increase sales. In fact, we already have digital startups in this space, and we can only expect the industry to grow in 2019.

Why is it a blockchain? Because it is based on a distributed and decentralized system, it provides a secure framework for communication between IoT devices. It allows the automatic exchange of data between them and is highly resistant to network attacks and other network problems.

2. There will be a large number of companies adopting blockchain

 Deloitte's 2018 Global Blockchain Survey revealed that 40% of respondents stated that their institution will invest $ 5 million or more in blockchain technology in 2019.

The same study shows that 74% of respondents believe that this technology will bring many benefits to their company.

First, IBM has developed blockchain products that allow startups and developers to build decentralized applications. As more and more companies move towards this emerging technology, we can expect that this technology will be promoted to some extent in the coming year.

3. Trading on crypto exchanges

 The number and popularity of crypto exchanges has recently increased. In fact, their impact on the crypto world is so great that a tweet or public statement from the CEO of any of the leading crypto exchanges could affect the price of a particular cryptocurrency.

Just a few weeks ago, Coinbase and Binance, the world's leading crypto exchanges, publicly supported the upcoming Bitcoin Cash hard fork before controversy and confusion arose in mid-November.

As cryptocurrencies continue to evolve, crypto exchanges and their impact on the crypto world will continue to evolve. Next year is no exception.

4. Games and crypto space

 There are many startups using crypto tokens and launching many blockchain-based video game related services. For example, Singapore-based startup Bountie plans to launch an online gaming platform where players will receive cryptocurrency rewards for playing games on that platform.

Later, they can use these tokens to buy a new game, merchandise, etc.

The development of blockchain gaming platforms may require more effort, but some of them will be released in 2019.

5. Decentralized applications will continue to grow

The first Ethereum decentralized game was Crypto Cat. The purpose of this game is to collect and breed digital cats.

This decentralized application did not completely change any system, but it did bring an idea that caught the attention of many developers who quickly realized the potential of decentralized applications and the Ethereum network.

Nonetheless, experts believe that 2019 will be a year of widespread decentralized applications.

6. Blockchain will disrupt the industry

Throughout the Internet, the term "blockchain" is associated with ICOs, Bitcoin, and everything related to cryptocurrencies. However, this is just one of many applications that spread like wildfire.

The financial industry is just one area where this technology makes things the best.

For example, did you know that the supply chain and shipping industry also profit from the blockchain? Now that this data can be tracked through immutable public ledgers, transporting and shipping goods (such as fresh food) has become more efficient and reliable.

Other industries that implement blockchain in operations include network security, insurance, healthcare, and more.

It can be safely said that by 2019, the adoption of blockchain will reach an unprecedented scale. We should not be surprised at its emergence in almost all industries.

7. Decentralized exchanges will increase

The number of decentralized crypto exchanges is likely to increase in the coming year.

Although most crypto exchanges are currently centralized (ironically), decentralized crypto exchanges will increase in number because they provide better user control, higher security, and better liquidity.

8. Government agencies are more likely to adopt blockchain

The concept of an immutable distributed ledger and its level of security has attracted governments to consider using it to store data on such systems.

It can save various data blocks from anywhere in the world. For example, Estonia has implemented blockchain technology on X-Road, a decentralized ledger that stores credentials for all citizens.
Analysis of Cryptocurrency Estimates for future estimation

To Sum up

To be sure, blockchain will bring revolutionary changes to business processes in many industries. However, full adoption will require significant time and effort. In addition, one thing we know about all Bitcoin, blockchain, and cryptocurrency predictions-the blockchain and crypto industries are growing rapidly.

May Refer:

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According to the 1st Joint United Nations Estimates, a Stillbirth occurs every 16 Seconds

Disruption of health services related to COVID-19 may worsen the situation, and the number of stillbirths may increase by nearly 200,000 within 12 months. According to estimates of the first joint stillbirth issued by the United Nations Children’s Fund, the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank Group and the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, nearly 2 million infants are stillborn every year, that is, every 16 seconds, there is a stillbirth.


According to the new report "Neglected Tragedy: Global Stillbirth Burden"

 the vast majority of stillbirths (84%) occur in low- and middle-income countries. In 2019, three-quarters of stillbirths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia. 

The report defines stillbirth as the birth of a fetus with no signs of life at 28 weeks of gestation and above.


Henrietta Fore, Executive Director of UNICEF on Still Childbirth, said: 

"The death of a child at birth or during pregnancy is a devastating tragedy for a family, which can often only be endured silently, and such tragedies are everywhere in the world. It happens too frequently. 

Every 16 seconds, a certain mother in a certain place will suffer an unspeakable stillbirth tragedy. 

In addition to the loss of life, this will also cause serious and lasting psychological and economic consequences for women, families and society costs.

For many of these mothers, this is not the case. With high-quality monitoring, proper prenatal care and skilled midwives, most stillbirths can be avoided."


The report warned that the COVID-19 pandemic may increase the number of stillbirths worldwide

 In 117 low- and middle-income countries, health services have been reduced by 50% due to the pandemic, which may increase nearly 200,000 stillbirths within 12 months. 

This is equivalent to an 11.1% increase in the number of stillbirths. According to the modeling of the report by researchers at the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University, the number of stillbirths in 13 countries may increase by 20% or more in 12 months.


Most stillbirths are due to poor quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth. The report pointed out that the key challenge is the lack of investment in antenatal and delivery services and in strengthening the nursing and midwifery team.


More than 40% of stillbirths occur during childbirth. This loss can be avoided if well-trained health workers are present at the time of delivery and timely emergency obstetric care is provided.

 About half of stillbirths in sub-Saharan Africa and Central and South Asia occur during childbirth, compared to 6% in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand.


Timely and high-quality care to prevent stillbirths

Even before the pandemic severely disrupted health services, few women in low- and middle-income countries had access to timely and high-quality care to prevent stillbirths. 

In terms of eight important maternal health interventions, including caesarean section, prevention of malaria, management of hypertension during pregnancy.

The detection and treatment of syphilis, among the 117 countries analyzed in the report, half of the countries have coverage rates of less than 2% to the highest is only between 50%. 

Vaginal delivery is an important intervention to prevent stillbirth during childbirth, but it is estimated that its coverage is less than half of pregnant women in need.


Slow Progress in Still Child Birth Reduction

Therefore, despite advances in health services aimed at preventing or treating the causes of child deaths, progress has been slow in reducing the stillbirth rate. 

From 2000 to 2019, the annual rate of decline in the stillbirth rate was only 2.3%. In contrast, the neonatal mortality rate fell by 2.9%, and the infant mortality rate for infants aged 1-59 months fell by 4.3%. 

However, as long as there are reasonable policies, plans and investments, progress can be made.


WHO Director-General Dr. Tedros on Still Childbirth said: 

“It should be a very happy moment to welcome the birth of a baby, but every day thousands of parents are griefed by the stillbirth of the baby. 

The tragedy of the stillbirth shows that strengthening and How important it is to maintain basic health services and how important it is to increase investment in nurses and midwives."


The report also pointed out that stillbirth is not just a challenge facing poor countries 

In 2019, 39 high-income countries had more stillbirths than newborn deaths, and 15 countries had more stillbirths than infant deaths. The education level of mothers is one of the most important factors that contribute to inequality in high-income countries.


Whether in a low-income environment or a high-income environment, the stillbirth rate in rural areas is higher than in urban areas. Socioeconomic status is also associated with a higher incidence of stillbirths. 

For example, in Nepal, the stillbirth rate of a few caste women is 40% to 60% higher than that of upper caste women.


A Still Child Birth Every 16 Seconds Estimates UN, infographics

Minorities in high-income countries, in particular, may not have access to adequate health care services. 

For example, the report points out that, according to observations, the stillbirth rate among Inuit in Canada is nearly three times that of other parts of Canada, while the risk of stillbirth among African American women in the United States is nearly twice that of white women.


Muhammad Ali Pate, Global Director of Health, Nutrition and Population Affairs of the World Bank and head of the Global Financing Facility for Women, Children and Adolescents, said: 

“Due to the disruption of life-saving health services, COVID-19 has triggered a battle for women, children and adolescents. A devastating secondary health crisis. 

Pregnant women need continuous access to quality care during pregnancy and childbirth. We are supporting countries to strengthen their health systems to prevent stillbirths and ensure that every pregnant woman has access to high-quality health care services. "


About the United Nations Inter-Agency Group on Child Mortality Estimation

The United Nations Inter-Agency Group on Child Mortality Estimation was established in 2004 to share child mortality data, improve child mortality estimation methods, report progress towards child survival goals, and improve the country’s ability to estimate child mortality in a timely and appropriate manner.

 The United Nations Inter-Agency Group on Child Mortality Estimation is led by UNICEF and its members include the World Health Organization, the World Bank Group and the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 

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Mass immunization may be the inevitable result: Are we ready to coexist with the new coronavirus nCOVD?

After Patrick Valence, the UK’s chief scientific adviser, first proposed the concept of “group immunization”, experts and media criticized a popular pessimism argument that if effective vaccines have not After birth, in the next 1 to 2 years, "group immunization" is an inevitable result of passive formation even if it is not a actively selected strategy.

On April 5, some public places in London, England were closed to reduce people's gathering activities.

In the first week of April, the world did not get better

On the evening of April 5, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson spent the first weekend of the month in the hospital, ten days after his diagnosis. His doctor described it as a "preventive measure", although Boris has shown persistent fever. But on Monday afternoon a few hours later, his condition began to deteriorate, and he has now been transferred to the intensive care unit of the hospital, where Foreign Minister Dominique Rab is temporarily acting as prime minister.

On April 4, Graham Medley, a professor of epidemiological models at Imperial College London and a senior adviser to the Johnson administration, suggested that the UK should reconsider whether to adopt a "group immunization" policy. He said: "The only viable way to help us through this emergency health event is to make people infected and therefore no longer vulnerable."

He warned that the "blockade" policy that the UK is adopting has "driven the whole country to the corner". If this continues, it will have a more serious negative impact than the new crown virus-the economy will fall into a total collapse. In his view, the blockade only won some time and prevented the short-term spread, but did not solve any problems. Medley pointed out that on April 13, the Prime Minister will make a "major decision" to determine whether the blockade policy will continue.

After Patrick Valence, the UK ’s chief scientific adviser, first proposed the concept of “group immunization” on March 13, experts and media criticized a popular pessimism argument that if effective vaccines have not After birth, in the next 1 to 2 years, "group immunization" is an inevitable result of passive formation even if it is not a actively selected strategy.

A recent study published by the University of Oxford in the UK seems to have advanced this result. After the model deduction, the researchers concluded that as of March 19, 36% to 68% of the people in the United Kingdom may have been infected with the new corona virus; Italy may have 60% to 80% of the people infected with the new corona virus by March 6 . This means that Britain and Italy may have formed a practical "group immunization".

This is just a model-based speculation, which needs to be confirmed by more accurate testing. However, if countries such as Europe and the United States will achieve "group immunization" in the future, for countries such as China that have adopted strict control measures, because most people are not infected and lack immunity, a "vaccination gap" will be formed, which is a very dangerous signal of.

(Profile picture) British Prime Minister Boris Johnson. Ten days after the diagnosis of new coronary pneumonia, Boris Johnson was transferred to the intensive care unit on the evening of April 6 due to worsening of his condition. Figure / IC

Coronavirus across countries and the UK

68% of Britons are already infected is the most extreme result

On March 24th, the Oxford University Infectious Disease Evolutionary Ecology team published a study that used the new crown death case data reported by the United Kingdom and Italy to simulate three different scenarios by giving different parameters to derive the possibility of the United Kingdom and Italy. The actual number of people who have been infected with the new coronavirus.

In the first two simulation scenarios, the setting of "the proportion of high-risk susceptible people in the crowd" is the same, which is 1%, that is, one out of 100 people is an elderly person over 65 or has a serious underlying disease, or breathing after infection Patients with serious complications such as failure. But in the first scenario, the basic infection number (R0) is set to 2.25, that is, an infected person can infect 2.25 people. It is estimated that as of March 19, at least 36% of the British people have been infected with the new crown virus. In the second scenario, the R0 value was increased to 2.75. In the model, the proportion of British people infected with the new coronavirus also increased to 40%.

The third scenario sets the high-risk susceptible population to 0.1%. According to the model, death cases are a small part of the high-risk susceptible population, so given the number of deaths, the lower the proportion of the high-risk susceptible population in the population, the greater the base of infection of the population. In this case, even if the smaller R0 value of 2.25 is used for calculation, at least 68% of the British people are already infected. In this regard, Paul Kellerman, one of the researchers and a professor of virology at Oxford University, said: "68% of British people have been infected is the most extreme result."

Corona virus in Italy

The same is true in Italy. According to the above three different parameter settings, it can be concluded that as of March 6th, 60% to 80% of the people in Italy may be infected with the new crown virus.

To verify the accuracy of the model, the researchers simulated the cumulative number of deaths in the UK and Italy within 15 days after the first death case. The results found that the results of the three scenarios were very consistent with the increase in the cumulative death case data for both countries. Therefore, the study points out that Britain and Italy may have accumulated sufficient levels of group immunity.

More than half of the people in the UK have been infected with the new crown nCOVD?

But Simon Gerbins, professor of infectious biology at the Bright Laboratory in the United Kingdom, pointed out that this does not mean that more than half of the people in the UK have been infected with the new crown. The third most extreme scenario is based on the high-risk susceptible The assumption is only 0.1% above the assumption. Once this number becomes 1%, the number of infections has dropped a lot, only 36% - 40%. "But the point is that no one knows what the proportion of high-risk people is."

According to Paul Hunt, a professor of pharmacy at East Anglia University, it is too early to make such an assumption. This ratio is related to the age distribution of the population, the proportion of people with basic diseases and the closeness of social connections in a society, and these will continue to change with the development of the epidemic.

A recent report published by the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonprofit research organization that has long been concerned about public health policies, pointed out that in the United States, about 37.6% of adults over the age of 18 will experience serious symptoms after being infected with the new coronavirus. This is equivalent to 4 out of 10 people belonging to high-risk susceptible groups. 
In addition, this ratio is different in different states. It can reach 49.3% in the highest state of West Virginia and 30% in the lowest state of Utah. The study defines high-risk susceptible populations as: elderly people over 65 years old, and people between 18 and 64 years old with heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, uncontrollable asthma or diabetes. The above figures are very different from the parameters set in the paper.

The setting of R0 also faces the same question. The WHO believes that the basic infection number of the new coronavirus is 1.4 to 2.5, and the median is 1.95. But the latest report, which combines 12 related studies, shows that the more appropriate R0 should be 3.28, with a median of 2.79. 
Throughout March, with the rapid spread of the epidemic in continental Europe, the Imperial College ’s epidemiology team raised their estimates of R0 twice, the first time on March 26, setting the range of R0 values. It was set at 2.4 ~ 3.3, and after four days, it was increased to 3 - 4.7 again.

In addition to the problem of parameter setting, the biggest problem of this model in the view of Gerbins is the assumption that the United Kingdom and Italy are an absolutely homogeneous population settlement, that is, different groups in different regions can be exposed to the virus absolutely equally. And infect others.

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention on nCOVD

Zeng Guang, the chief epidemiologist of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, told that the population is very complex and unbalanced. For example, within Italy, the differences in infections between different regions are very different. Hunt also pointed out that the ability of asymptomatic, mild and severe patients to transmit the virus to others is different. This model does not take into account these differences. "This will cause an overestimation of the virus infection rate, which will affect the estimation of the actual infected population."

Giuseppe Remuzi, a well-known professor of nephrology in Italy, pointed out that it is impossible for more than 60% of people in Italy to be infected, unless it is in some specific areas, such as Bergamo, a severely affected area. Only large-scale serum testing studies can provide more reliable estimates.

The usefulness of such models is that after deducing the corresponding number of deaths and infection rates, on the one hand, it promotes the government to introduce a more active public health policy. On the other hand, after the end of the epidemic prevention and control, the actual data The comparison is an assessment of the effectiveness of the policy.

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Paramyxovirus Danger

A type of virus that has a special affinity for mucus proteins. Among them, measles, respiratory syncytial virus, Newcastle disease virus, etc. It can infect humans or animals, and have great importance in medicine and veterinary medicine. It is polymorphic, slightly larger than orthomyxovirus, with a diameter of 150 nanometers or more, with an envelope, and the surface of the envelope has ridge-shaped protrusions composed of glycoproteins. The nucleic acid in the virion is a continuous ssRNA (single-stranded RNA). Some can be prevented with live attenuated vaccines. High variability. Short latency.

Latin scientific name:   Paramyxoviruses

Boundary:    Virology
Diameter:    150 nm or larger
Genetic material:    Single-stranded RNA

Image of Paramyxoviruses


A type of virus that has a special affinity for mucus proteins. Among them, measles, respiratory syncytial virus, Newcastle disease virus, etc. can infect humans or animals, and have great importance in medicine and veterinary medicine. 
It is polymorphic, slightly larger than orthomyxovirus, with a diameter of 150 nanometers or more, with an envelope. The surface of the envelope has ridge - shaped protrusions composed of glycoproteins.


The nucleic acid in the virion is a continuous ssRNA (single-stranded RNA). Some can be prevented with live attenuated vaccines. High variability. Short latency.

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Q 1. What is Hepatitis?

Meaning of Hepatitis: Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. The condition can resolve on its own, or it can develop into liver fibrosis ("crusting"), cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis virus is the most common cause of hepatitis worldwide, but other infections, toxic substances such as alcohol and certain drugs, and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis.

There are five main types of hepatitis viruses, namely types A, B, C, D and E. Because of the disease burden and the deaths caused by the disease, and the possibility of outbreaks and epidemic transmission, these five types of hepatitis are of most concern. In particular, hepatitis B and C, which cause hundreds of millions of people with chronic diseases, are both the most common causes of cirrhosis and cancer.

The typical cause of hepatitis A and E is the consumption of contaminated food or water. Hepatitis B, C, and D infections are usually the result of parental contact with contaminated body fluids. Common routes of transmission of these viruses include ingestion of contaminated blood or blood products, and use of contaminated equipment for invasive medical procedures. 
Hepatitis B is also transmitted from mother to child during childbirth, from family members to children, and it can also be transmitted through sexual contact.

Acute infections can be accompanied by limited or asymptomatic symptoms, and symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), yellow urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

Q 2. What are the different hepatitis viruses?

 A: Scientists have identified five distinct hepatitis viruses and identified them as A, B, C, D and E. Although they both cause liver disease, they differ in important ways.

Hepatitis A virus is found in the stool of infected persons and is most often transmitted by eating contaminated water or food. Certain sexual acts can also spread the hepatitis A virus. Most cases of infection have only mild symptoms, and most people will fully recover and maintain immunity to the hepatitis A virus in the future. However, hepatitis A virus infection can also be serious and even life-threatening. 
Most people living in less sanitary areas of the world have been infected with the virus. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent hepatitis A virus.

Hepatitis B virus is transmitted through contact with infected blood, sperm, and other body fluids. Hepatitis B virus can be transmitted to an infant by an infected mother during childbirth, or transmitted to an infant in early childhood through a family member.

The virus can also be spread through contaminated injections and injecting drugs in medical procedures using blood and blood products contaminated with hepatitis B virus.

Hepatitis B virus also poses a threat to health care workers in providing accidental needle stick injuries when providing care to people infected with hepatitis B virus. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent hepatitis B virus.

Hepatitis C virus is also most often transmitted through contact with infected blood. The use of HCV-contaminated blood and blood products, the use of contaminated injections and injectable drugs in medical procedures may cause the virus to spread. It may also be transmitted sexually, but it is less common. Hepatitis C virus vaccine is not yet available.

Hepatitis D virus infection only occurs in people infected with hepatitis B virus. Co-infection with hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B virus may cause more serious disease and worse consequences. A safe and effective hepatitis B vaccine can protect against hepatitis D virus infection.
Hepatitis Virus A B C D E Viruses Viral Infection

Q 3. What is Hepatitis E Virus?

Hepatitis E virus, like hepatitis A virus, is also mostly infected by eating contaminated water or food. In the developing world, hepatitis E virus is a common cause of hepatitis epidemics, and more and more developed countries also recognize it as an important cause. Vaccines for the safe and effective prevention of hepatitis E virus infection have been developed, but are not yet universally available.

Early symptoms of hepatitis

In our life, liver salt is a relatively common disease. Some people have experienced liver cancer. Do you know the early symptoms of hepatitis? What are the causes of hepatitis and what foods do you usually eat for hepatitis patients? It ’s good for your health, so let ’s take a look with the editors.

Q 4. What are the Early symptoms of Hepatitis Infection?

1. Hepatitis epidemic season or epidemic area and patients with acute hepatitis in the home should be highly vigilant and always on guard.

2. A few people had symptoms similar to "cold" before they became ill.

3. There is no obvious inducement, so I suddenly feel fatigued, mentally tired, weak knees, etc.

4. Sudden appetite symptoms, such as loss of appetite, oiliness, nausea, vomiting, bloating, diarrhea or constipation.

5. The right quarter of the ribs has stability, pain, tingling or burning sensation.

6. The urine of the sclera and skin is yellow, and the urine is dark brown.

7. Sclera is yellow in both eyes.

8. Congestive redness of the skin on the palm surface, especially the large and small fishes and the palm surface of the fingertips.

9. The palm of the second knuckle of the ring finger of both hands has obvious tenderness.

10. There is a nodular bulge at the corresponding liver point areas of both auricles. When this point is lightly pressed with a match stick, the pain is more obvious than in other parts.

11, complexion dull and dull.

12. There are scattered red dots on the surface of the whole body with feet (red silk). When you gently press the center of the red dot with a pointed object, the red silk around you can disappear, and the red silk comes back after you stop pressing. Medically, spider nevus is positive.

Q 5. What are the causes of hepatitis?

1. Infection

It is caused by a variety of hepatitis viruses, and has the characteristics of strong infectivity, complicated transmission routes, widespread epidemic, and high incidence. At present, viral hepatitis is mainly divided into five types: hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Hepatitis A and E are acute hepatitis and are transmitted by fecal-oral route.

These two types of hepatitis are self-limiting and generally do not become chronic. A few can progress to cirrhosis. Hepatitis B and C are transmitted by the parenteral route, most commonly by the blood route, and the proportion of hepatitis B transmitted vertically from mother to child is high.

2. Overworked

May damage the body's relatively balanced immune status, promote the replication of hepatitis B virus, increase liver burden, and lead to recurrence of liver disease. There are several types of overwork: long journeys, staying up late, high mental stress, excessive work stress, mood swings, anger and fighting, and frequent sexual intercourse.

3. In terms of diet

The diet of patients with liver disease should be based on light, nutritious foods. Avoid eating greasy, fried, spicy foods, which are difficult to digest, will increase the burden on the gastrointestinal tract, damage the spleen and stomach, and induce liver disease. Drinking alcohol is one of the most important causes of recurrence of liver disease. Alcohol oxidizes in the liver to form the harmful substance acetaldehyde, which can directly damage the liver.

Consequences of damage include alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic fatty liver, and alcoholic cirrhosis. 90% of those who have been drinking continuously for more than 5 years can develop various liver damages.
About 30% of them have chronic hepatitis, and about a quarter have developed cirrhosis.

4. Drugs

Many drugs and chemical toxicants can cause liver damage and develop drug-induced or toxic hepatitis. The degree of damage to the liver depends on the length of time a drug or chemical poison is taken or exposed, as well as individual quality differences. Long-term use or repeated exposure to drugs and chemical poisons can lead to chronic hepatitis and even cirrhosis.

5. Environmental impact

Patients with liver disease change their original habits and living environment shortly after the disease is stable, such as business trips, travel, etc., due to changes in living environment, water and soil conditions, and abnormal internal liver function, liver function abnormalities occur.
The seasons of liver disease onset are different. Spring and summer are the seasons when hepatitis is prone to occur, and there are relatively few authors in autumn and winter.
Diet Food for Hepatitis Infection

Q 5. What to eat for hepatitis?

The first food that is good for hepatitis is dragon fruit. In addition to the rich albumin in dragon fruit, there is a more special anthocyanin. Generally, this substance is found in fruits and vegetables such as grape skin and red beet.

Dragon fruit has the highest content, especially in red-flesh seeds, which has antioxidant, anti-free radical, anti-aging effects, and can repair liver cells.

The second is grapes. The polyphenols contained in grapes are natural free-radical scavengers. They have strong antioxidant activity, can regulate the function of liver cells, and resist or reduce the damage caused by free radicals.

The third type is eggs. The yolks, lecithin, and choline contained in eggs are very beneficial to the development of the body. They can improve brain health, improve memory, and promote liver cell regeneration. However, eating one egg a day is sufficient.

The fourth type is carrots. Carrots contain a large amount of carotene, as well as vitamin a, which can help liver cells repair, provide nutrients to the liver, and can also improve the eyesight.

The fifth is tomato, which has the effect of clearing the liver and reducing fire, and also contains lycopene, an antioxidant ingredient that can protect cells from damage and repair damaged stem cells.

The sixth is red dates. Red dates are a nutrient-rich food, and they also have very good beauty effects. Red dates can nourish the spleen and qi, nourish blood and soothe the nerves, and can also reduce the toxicity of drugs, protect the liver and enhance the body's immunity force.

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