Enteroviruses Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Tests Transmission

Pathology Transmission Diagnosis and How to Treat Prevent Enteroviruses

Enteroviruses include poliomyelitis virus, Coxsackievirus, enterocytopathic human orphan virus (ECHO for short) and a new type of enterovirus with 71 serotypes. Enteroviruses are infectious diseases caused by viruses. Those with mild clinical manifestations include burnout, fatigue, and low fever, and those with severe infections can have systemic infections. The brain, spinal cord, heart, liver, and other important organs are damaged. Cause death. This type of disease is distributed all over the world. It is found throughout the year in tropical and subtropical regions. It is more common in temperate summers and has a high incidence in warm, humid, poor sanitary and crowded areas. 

Nickname:    Enterovirus

Visiting department:    Anorectal

Common locations:    Intestine

Contagious:   Yes

Table of Contents

    1 Pathology

    2 Ways of Transmission

    3 Diagnosis

    4 Treatment

    5 Prevention

Pathology for enteroviruses

Pathogen enteroviruses include poliovirus, coxsackie virus, and orphans that cause cytopathic changes in the human intestine

Pediatric virus (ECHO virus). These viruses belonged to the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family in 1970. Enteroviruses discovered after the 67 types of the three enteroviruses named above are named after the enterovirus ordinal number, that is, enteroviruses 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, etc.

Enterovirus particles are small, 20-hedron, diameter 24-30nm, lipid-free, core with single-stranded ribonucleic acid, resistant to ether and other lipid solvents, acid-resistant, and resistant to various antibiotics, antivirals, and detergents Resistance. Most viruses develop cytopathic effects in cell culture.

Enteroviruses are usually parasitic in the intestine and, in rare cases, enter the bloodstream or nervous tissue. Normal virus carriers are rare, recessive infections are very common, and clinical symptoms after infection are few.

Epidemic situation From 1969 to 1973, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by enterovirus type 70 occurred in many parts of the world, first in Ghana, Africa, and later in other parts of Africa.

In 1970, pandemics occurred in Southeast Asia, India, Japan, Singapore and other places, involving millions of people.

In 1971, there were several small outbreaks in Yugoslavia and France in Europe. It became popular in Asia and Africa again in 1981 and spread to the Caribbean, northern South America, Central America and Miami, USA. In the 1980s, several epidemics also occurred in China. 

Pathology of Enterovirus

Way for spreading of enteroviruses

Humans are the only natural host for enteroviruses. The virus spreads through close contact between people (through fingers, tableware, and food).

Viruses are present in the throat and intestines of infected people, and it takes longer to remove the virus from feces, which can last for several weeks. Fecal-mouth is the main route of transmission. It can also be spread by droplets by accident. The virus lives in sewage for a long time.

Onset and clinical manifestations of enterovirus

After ingestion of the virus in humans, after 7 to 14 days, the virus that is present in lymphoid tissues of the pharynx and intestine passes through the bloodstream to proliferate into mononuclear phagocytes, and finally reaches the target organ (such as spinal cord, brain, Meninges, heart, liver, skin, etc.), cause corresponding clinical symptoms in different organs.

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by enterovirus type 70 is usually sudden onset, with severe eye pain, photophobia, blurred vision, subconjunctival bleeding, and bleeding from small bleeding points to large bleedings. Full recovery within 10 days. Can be accompanied by a rare neurological complication-acute lumbar spinal spinal radiculopathy, which is more common in adult males and occurs a few weeks after eye disease.

The main symptoms are similar to polio and can lead to sequelae such as paralysis and muscle atrophy. Another complication is facial paralysis. Enterovirus 71 mainly causes hand-foot-mouth disease and aseptic meningitis. Enterovirus 72 can cause hepatitis A. 

Diagnosis of Enteroviruses

Diagnosis of enteroviruses

Depends on detection of pathogens and antibodies. These viruses can be found in feces, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, spinal cord, conjunctival secretions, and lesions in the throat, brain, heart, liver, and skin or mucous membranes. 
The virus can be isolated by tissue culture or animal inoculation, and then identified by corresponding antisera. Fast and sensitive methods for detecting nucleic acids include PCR and SAT.

Fast and sensitive methods for detecting antigens include immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and nucleic acid hybridization. Detection of serum antibody titers in the acute phase and recovery phase can be confirmed if there is a 4-fold increase in antibody titers. Methods include neutralization test, complement binding test and hemagglutination inhibition test.  

Treatment of enterovirus

There are no specific treatments available. Symptomatic treatment is used and most patients can recover. 

Common enteroviruses are Quexackie virus, also known as Coxsackievirus groups A and B, 23 types of A (type A), 6 types of B (type B), 31 types of Echovirus, and 31 Three types of Poliovirus that cause polio, and unclassified enterovirus types 68-71. A total of 67 species.

Pathological analysis of Enterovirus

Enteroviruses belong to the family Picorna viridae, and viruses of this genus have the same physical and chemical biological characteristics. 

Coxsackie viruses can be divided into A and B groups according to the characteristics of neonatal mice.

Group A can cause extensive myelomyositis and necrosis in rats, causing flaccid paralysis.
There are 24 serotypes in this group. 6 serotypes have been found in group B, which can cause focal myositis, myocarditis, and hepatitis in neonatal rats, Encephalitis, etc.

Ecovirus types 1 to 34 are available, but types 8, 10, 28, and 34 have been classified as other viruses. They are only infectious to humans, but not pathogenic to suckling rats. Monkey kidneys and human kidney cells are responsible for Ecoviruses.

Virus sensitive and can be used to isolate viruses. Since 1968, a new type of enterovirus 68-71, which cannot be neutralized with existing enterovirus immune sera, was discovered.

Since the beginning of spring, the temperature gradually increases and enteroviruses are about to move. It is possible to enter the enterovirus epidemic period at the end of April and early May, reminding parents to pay attention to their hands and young children's hand hygiene, and wash your hands properly.

Enterovirus transmission is diversified

Enterovirus transmission is diversified, mainly through the gastrointestinal tract or the respiratory tract, but can also be transmitted through contact with blisters and secretions on the patient's skin, and the infection is quite high.

After being infected with enterovirus, the incubation period is longer, and the symptoms are mild a few days before the onset. However, the enterovirus is already present in the throat and feces. At this time, it is infectious, and the infectious power is highest within 1 week after the onset. Do not go to school for the time being to avoid passing it on to other children.

Popular group: young children under 5 years old

Transmission channels: Enteroviruses are extremely contagious, mainly transmitted through the gastrointestinal tract (fecal, mouth, water, or food contamination) or the respiratory tract (droplets, coughing, or sneezing), or through contact with blisters and secretions on the patient's skin Infectious.

Incubation period: Symptoms begin to appear in about 3-10 days, and most patients can be cured in about a week.

It is worth mentioning that children with enteroviruses still have a certain infectivity after recovery, and the enteroviruses in the body will still be excreted from the body with feces for up to 8 to 12 weeks. Regarding adults and children, after healing, you should continue to pay attention to personal hand hygiene, wet, rubbing, washing, holding, rubbing and other hand washing steps to avoid infection.

Enterovirus types mostly Keshaqi A

Enterovirus types are mostly Keshaqi A. As for enterovirus 71 and enterovirus D68, patients are mostly mild and sporadic. Infants and young children under the age of 5 have not yet developed their immune systems. After infection with enterovirus, they are prone to severe illnesses such as meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, pneumonia, and limb paralysis.

But did you know that there are many types of enteroviruses, including hand-foot-foot disease and pharyngeal herpes? There is no specific medicine for this disease, and only supportive care can be taken, but most children will recover on their own after one week.

Hand, foot and mouth disease does not have a vaccine or a specific medicine. It is mainly supportive therapy, such as: fever, cough, symptom treatment, etc., and pain caused by fever and oral ulcers. During isolation at home, you should pay attention to the amount of water and diet, and take adequate rest.

What is the Prevention of Enterovirus?

Poliomyelitis vaccine is very effective. However, there is no specific control method for other enterovirus infections. Infants and young children should avoid close contact with patients with acute fever. Injection of γ-globulin or placental globulin can also play a certain preventive role. 

Enterovirus, also called enterovirus, is an RNA virus that grows mainly in the intestine. Although it is called enterovirus, it rarely occurs in humans. In virus classification, RNA viruses belonging to class IV.
Enterovirus is named after its English abbreviation "EV" for "Enterovirus", followed by a suffix with a number. For example, EV71, which is prevalent in Asia and North America in recent years and can cause hand, foot and mouth disease is one of them.

1. Be sure to change your clothes when you go home. Don't hurry to hug your children. Wash your hands with soap before hugging or feeding infants.

2. During the epidemic, avoid crowded and inaccessible public places. At the same time, we must also pay attention to the sanitation and ventilation of the home environment.

3. Try to avoid contact with suspected patients, especially pregnant women, newborns and infants.

4. Newborns can breastfeed more to increase resistance.

5. Children's toys (especially fur toys) are often cleaned and disinfected.

6. Caregivers or contacts should pay special attention to personal hygiene.

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