What is Hair Dye Allergy and How to Cure ir?

 

I dyed my white hair black, but I didn’t expect to be allergic to hair dye. What's the matter?

If you love beauty, you can't be willful. Dyeing your hair can really kill you. The most common problem with hair dye allergy is allergic dermatitis. At present, research suggests that hair dye allergy may be related to allergens, individual immunity and genetic susceptibility. Although most are only delayed mild reactions, sometimes hair dye allergy can have serious consequences.


If you love beauty, you can't be willful. Dyeing your hair can really kill you

Some time ago, a news that dyed hair to death once again put the matter of hair dyeing in front of the public. Most people have become accustomed to dyeing their hair. 

After all, most people now try to dye their hair or bake oil at some time in their lives. However, not everyone is suitable for dyeing hair. The argument that dyed hair causes cancer is still being debated, but there is no doubt that dyeing hair causes allergies. 

Allergies are also very common. 


Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis and other diseases, even if not everyone can get it, you will always have it a few people with allergies, then, what is allergic to hair dye?

The most common problem with hair dye allergy is allergic dermatitis. At present, research suggests that hair dye allergy may be related to allergens, individual immunity and genetic susceptibility.

 There are many studies on the N-acetyltransferase 1 gene (NAT-1) at home and abroad. This is because the most common allergen for hair dye allergy is p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and a small amount will penetrate into the epidermis and dermis. 

Participate in acetylation metabolism and transform into N-monoethylphthalate p-phenylenediamine (MAPPD) and N-diethylphthalate p-phenylenediamine (DAPPD).

Hair Dye Allergy


PPD is no longer sensitizing to the body after transformation, and will no longer cause an immune response, which proves that N-acetyltransferase 1 plays a detoxification effect. 

Therefore, the probability of detoxification genes in people with hair allergy is lower than normal people.

 

What is the relation of hair dye and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene?

In addition, the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene is also related to this. 

This is a zinc metalloenzyme whose main function is to promote the conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2, and it can also regulate inflammation and reduce the production of inflammatory substances. 

Its specific genotype will make the onset of inflammation more pronounced and is a risk factor for allergy.

 

Although hair dye allergy is related to genetic susceptibility, the most important source is the allergen. PPD was recognized as a strong allergen long ago. my country’s "Hygienic Standards for Cosmetics" promulgated and used in 2007 stipulated that the content of p-phenylenediamine in hair dyes should not exceed 6%. 

The United States limits the content of p-phenylenediamine in hair dyes to 1% to 8%, and does not allow the use of p-phenylenediamine in eyebrow creams and mascaras to prevent corneal damage and blindness. 

According to research findings, the sensitization rate of Chinese people to phenylenediamine is about 10%, which is higher than the usual international sensitization rate of 2% to 6%.

 

When using hair dye, about 1% of p-phenylenediamine will be absorbed by the skin. PPD is a small molecule that can easily enter hair and hair follicles and move into keratin. 

The amine group (-NH2-) at one end binds to keratin, and the other end binds to dye molecules through an oxidant (H2O2), making the dye molecules attached on the hair, finish dyeing. 


Sensitization Mechanism of PPD Generates Free Radicals

Experiments have proved that the sensitization mechanism of PPD is that after entering the skin, under the action of an oxidant, it generates free radicals through oxidation, which stimulates the proliferation of skin keratinocytes and stimulates the production of allergic factors. 

A large amount of PPD can cause cell damage and death.

 

What are the symptoms of symptoms of allergic dermatitis?

The symptoms of allergic dermatitis are usually not very serious, mainly erythema spasm and edema of the scalp, forehead, and eyelids, lasting for half a month to 20 days. 

Although most are only delayed mild reactions, sometimes hair dye allergy can have serious consequences. 

If the hair dye gets into the eyes, it may induce allergic conjunctivitis and even eye damage. 

Some people suffer from purpuric nephritis and psoriasis due to hair dyeing, and some even pay the price of their lives for this. 

Beauty is important, but life is more important. It is not worthwhile to damage the quality of life or even lose life because of the love of beauty. 

After all, the love of beauty itself is improving the quality of life.


What are the precautions I should take before dyeing hair? 

Before dyeing your hair, you should test it first. Apply the hair dye behind the ears or elsewhere, and then dye the hair after confirming that you are not allergic. 

If you find allergies, do not dye your hair. Especially do not repeat dyeing your hair. Because research has found that multiple hair dyes with allergies can lead to more serious consequences. 


What precautions I should take when I shampoo my hair? 

When shampooing, be careful not to let the hair dye flow into the eyes, and it is best not to use too hot water, because that will make the scalp blood vessels dilate and absorb more PPD.

Therefore, dyeing hair is risky, so be careful when you love beauty!

 

 

 

References:

 

1. Yang Qiuyan, Liu Yuanjun, Yao Weifeng, et al. The relationship between N-acetyltransferase 1 gene polymorphism and hair dye dermatitis [J]. Chinese Journal of Dermatovenereology, 2010, 24(9):807-809.

 

2. Yang Qiuyan. Study on the relationship between NAT1, NAT2 and ACE gene polymorphisms and dermatitis [D]. Tianjin Medical University, 2011.

 

3. Xu Hongjun, Liu Yuanjun, Sun Chenwei, et al. Relationship between N-acetyltransferase 2 gene and dermatitis [J]. Chinese Journal of Dermatology, 2009, (9):642-643.

 

4. Wang Chong, Xu Yongjun, Yang Xiaoyan, et al. In vitro micronucleus experiment of commercially available hair dyes [C] // The 16th National Academic Exchange Conference of Risk Evaluation Professional Committee of Chinese Society of Environmental Mutagens. 2014.

 

5. Hu Yixiu, Zang Xuebing, Qiu Feng, et al. Study on the genetic toxicity of p-phenylenediamine [J]. Journal of Toxicology, 1998, (1):64-64.

 

6. Yang Zhaohong. Safety supervision and health protection of hair dyes [J]. Occupation and Health, 2011, 27(17):2016-2018.

 

7. Jian Biao. 46 cases of eye allergic reaction caused by hair dye [J]. Modern Medicine & Health, 2008, 24(13):2013-2013.

 

8. Li Qing, Tan Xiaohua, He Guoqun, et al. Study on the acute toxicity of a black hair dyeing shampoo [J]. Chinese Tropical Medicine, 2009, 9(9):1939-1940.

 

9. Chu Xiulin, Zhang Zhaoquan, Du Xuehai, et al. A case of purpuric nephritis caused by "one wash black" hair dyeing shampoo [J]. Chinese Journal of Nephrology, 1994, (3).

 

10. Wang Huibin. Clinical analysis of 24 cases of head contact dermatitis caused by hair dye [J]. Dermatology and Venereology, 2000, (3):10-11.

 

11. Zhuang Wan, Huang Hongnan, Wang Luxiao, et al. Study on skin irritation, allergy and combined effects of imported hair dyes and perms [J]. Strait Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2011, 17(3):50-51.

 

12. Yang Shiping. A case of psoriasis induced by hair dye sensitization [J]. Journal of Dermatology and Venereology, 1997, (4): 41-42.

 

13. Sun Chenwei. Epidemiological study on hair dye allergy in Tianjin area [D]. Tianjin Medical University, 2008.


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