Articles by "Economy"

 Currency Ram Encyclopedia (Raam Mudra)

Raam was launched by Global Nations for World Peace in October 2001. It issued a currency called "Raam", which was led by neuroscientist Tony Nader. GCWP is a US-based non-profit organization headquartered in Maharishi Vedic, Iowa. Rams are issued in three denominations, 1, 5 and 10 rams. The currency Raam Mudra was accepted in parts of the Netherlands and the United States at the time. Benjamin Feldman, finance minister of the Maharishi movement, said Raam could prove useful in eradicating poverty. He insists that its use in agriculture should be encouraged.

Currency Raam

Rama is often referred to as the Link of World Peace. Maharishi's movement declared that it would promote world peace, balance the economy and eradicate poverty at the same time. 

What is the value of Currency Ram?

In Europe currency Ram Mudra corresponds to ten euros, while in the USA it is ten dollars. The group used the currency to build the Peace Palace. 

Although the currency was first issued almost 20 years ago, its current state of circulation is unclear as there is no updated information about it online. 

Valuable currency Raam

There is currently no information that it is widely used outside of the Vedic cities where it is used.


What Type of Currency is Ram Mudra?

The Ram is a bearer bond and local currency issued by world peace countries around the world. It is designed to develop agricultural projects and eradicate poverty in third world countries.


As of 2003, it had limited acceptance in some European and American cities. The currency is already in use in Iowa and has been approved in the Netherlands, where more than 100 Dutch stores, department store chains in 30 Dutch towns and cities use the banknote with a fixed exchange rate of 10 EUR/Rhm.


In what denominations Ram is Issued?

Raam are issued in denominations of 1, 5 and 10 Raam, in Europe 1 Raam is 10 euros and in the US 1 Raam is 10 dollars. Raam's notes are printed by Joh. Enschede.

In 2002, Maharishi Vedic Mayor Bob Wynn estimated that Raam was worth $40,000 in circulation.

Ram differs from other complementary currencies in that it focuses on exporting products rather than improving local circulation for the benefit of local residents.

 According to the Global National Finance Ministers for World Peace, Raam is usable for agricultural projects in developing countries. 

James Dorn, a currency expert at the CATO Institute, cast doubt on the viability of the plan, saying other economic approaches would be a better way to build a network of collective farms. 

How does Raam earn Interest?

Raam, also a bearer bond, earns a total of 3% interest after five years (0.6% simple interest per annum), according to the issuer.

Since 2003, under Dutch law, Raam has been used in more than 100 stores in the Netherlands alongside the euro. Raam can be exchanged at Fortis Bank in Reermond, Netherlands.


How many Ram Bank notes have been in circulation?

The Dutch central bank estimated that there were around 100,000 ram banknotes in circulation in 2003.

A side of Raam currency note

It is also limited to cities in Iowa known as Maharishi Vedic City and Fairfield. According to Maharishi Global Financing, an agreement was reached in 2004 with a farmers' association in South America and traditional leaders in Africa to begin using Raam in agricultural development projects.


Is Raam not a regular fiat currency or legal tender?

Raam is actually a bearer bond in financial terms, also known as local currency. Bearer bonds are more of an investment vehicle than conventional bonds.

Unlike the national common currency, which is accepted by everyone in the country, it may not be accepted by everyone when a bearer bond is offered in a transaction.

The bond is redeemable at Fortis Bank in Roermond, Netherlands and Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa, information not available elsewhere.

Bearer bonds are usually issued by companies or governments to raise funds, so they are essentially a debt instrument. But the investor of the bond is not registered, so the person who actually owns the bond becomes the owner. Therefore, it can be used as a currency for exchanging money. But it's still not a regular currency, and bonds usually earn interest because it's a debt instrument.

Raam Mudra

Although it is priced at €10, it is not a regular currency because it is not legal tender issued by a state or central bank. Also, it is not widely used as a currency. 

Why is the value of currency Raam is fixed?

Raam is also not traded on the foreign exchange market and its valuation against the dollar and the euro is fixed.


Is Raam the most expensive currency in the World?

Another fact is that although the Raam was worth $10 and €10, a bearer bond was issued with a higher value. So it is not the most expensive bearer bond either. Therefore, it is not a common currency, nor can it be called the most expensive currency in the world.

World Peace Global nation has sought to gain sovereign status by acquiring land and establishing independent city-states such as the Vatican. 

They tried to buy land from several countries, but none of them agreed to sell them land to create an independent country.


How can the currency Ram become a regular Legal tender?

If the GCWP can create a sovereign state, then it will be able to create a central bank whose currency, the Raam, will be given the status of common fiat money or legal tender.

What is the other name for currency Raam?

The other name for currency Raam is Raam Mudra.

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Relationship between Bitcoin and Blockchain

Now people have learned that blockchain is the underlying technology of Bitcoin, and Bitcoin is the killer application of blockchain. Many people have also broadened their thinking and tried to use blockchain technology not only for virtual currencies but apply to all walks of life.

In fact, blockchain technology is not instantly rooted in the hearts of the people. Its development has gone through the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 eras. Each era has different characteristics and meanings. Today, Xiaojun Jun will summarize it for everyone. In the era of blockchain 1.0 led by coins, what kind of characteristics does it have?

Blockchain 1.0: The Era of Digital Currency

In 2008, the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis triggered a global financial crisis, and the fiat currencies of various countries depreciated sharply. At this time, a person (or organization) calling himself Satoshi Nakamoto published an article entitled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System "paper, this paper describes a brand new digital currency system-Bitcoin.

Blockchain and Cryptocurrency relationship

Bitcoin solves the problem of a constant amount of currency issuance and circulation without a central institution at all. Transaction transfers through the Bitcoin system will be broadcast throughout the network, making it open and transparent, non-tamperable and highly credible. One can safely transfer bitcoins to unknown people on the other side of the earth through the bitcoin network. The advent of the Bitcoin white paper marks the birth of Bitcoin's underlying technology, the blockchain.

In addition, it also marks that the concept of digital currency, which was proposed before 1996, was truly implemented at this time. With the first batch of Satoshi Nakamoto being dug out, the blockchain was used as the bottom layer. The digital currency system of technology has officially opened the era of blockchain 1.0. It can be said that the era of blockchain 1.0 is the era of single application scenarios of digital currencies.

The blockchain 1.0 era seems to be a kind of tinder. Although it has not yet become a source of 燎 hara, it is the first to bring digital currency into the real world. From the beginning, when cryptographic enthusiasts decrypted games in their spare time to entering financial products whose exchange prices have skyrocketed, the consensus of digital currencies has expanded tremendously at this stage.

Bitcoin is the most typical representative of Blockchain 1.0. It represents the application of digital currency in reality, including its payment means, circulation media and other functions. The most famous event is nine years ago, a man named Laszlo

Hanyecz's programmer bought two pizza vouchers for 10,000 bitcoins. This is widely considered to be the first transaction with Bitcoin, and it is also one of the enduring stories of the currency circle. Many currency friends call this day "Bitcoin Pizza Day".

Later, as bitcoin gained more and more widespread recognition, around the basic digital currency of bitcoin, people started many business and peripheral services, such as wallet, exchange, mining, and mining machine business.

In addition, the use of blockchain technology as the foundation has also promoted the emergence of a series of other digital currencies. Some old altcoins were born. Digital currencies such as Litecoin and Dogecoin entered the market and performed their functions during that period. However, most of the digital currencies at that time were based on bitcoin's code and were slightly modified. The application fields were also the same as those of bitcoin, mainly in the field of currency and payment, but there was no widespread application.

3 Main Characteristics

Here, the characteristics of the blockchain 1.0 era mainly have three aspects:

(1) Technically realized decentralization

Friends who have read our previous article know that the decentralized system is not the first time that Bitcoin has been proposed. Prior to this, there were many members of "crypto punk" who, as believers in cryptography, tried to destroy the now centralized currency. System, they also proposed digital currency, and all ended in failure.

Until Satoshi Nakamoto integrated these technologies, using the concept of "time stamping" to solve the "double spend" problem of "transaction repetition" and giving those who maintain the system / competitive packaging rights to use Bitcoin as a "mining reward" Only at the technical level has it realized a decentralized system of "free trade on the entire network and common maintenance on the entire network".

(2) Source code is open source, altcoins appear

The consensus mechanism is a very important part of blockchain technology, and this consensus mechanism can be verified by open source source code.

The most significant feature of the blockchain 1.0 era is the use and payment of digital currencies. It is also with the open source source code that the Bitcoin network is reproducible, which gave birth to hundreds of various digital currencies represented by Bitcoin at the time, such as Litecoin and Dogecoin. and many more.

Through the use of these digital currencies, in this distributed, decentralized, globalized way, everyone can allocate and trade various resources with others.

(3) Limited to the financial industry, the vertical application scenario of currency payment

In the currency scene of the financial sector, the Blockchain 1.0 era set off a wave. The first and most successful application of blockchain technology is digital currency, which resonates with many related fields such as digital payment, remittance, and transfer in the traditional financial industry, and has attracted much attention.

In the fields of digital payments, transfers, remittances, etc., if traditional financial methods are used, then it is necessary to use third-party institutions such as banks to open, account, counterparty, clearing organizations, overseas banks and other complicated and complicated processing processes, not only time Long and costly.

And the use of blockchain technology can save the complicated processing process in the middle, and directly perform point-to-point payment. Although digital currency has not been accepted by the traditional financial industry at this stage, the blockchain technology behind it has long been recognized and may bring great benefits to the financial industry in terms of processing efficiency.

But it is worth mentioning that although we named this stage the era of blockchain 1.0 from the perspective of technological development, in fact, we may still know its digital currency applications the most in this era. At this stage, the public's attention is almost focused on the price of the currency. The concept of blockchain is often affixed to Bitcoin, and at this time has not been listed separately as an independent technology attracting attention.

Blockchain Meaning and restrictions

Blockchain 1.0 gave birth to the largest cryptocurrency, Bitcoin. Digital currency applications represented by bitcoin, whose scenarios include monetary functions such as payment and circulation, are the origin of blockchain technology and a force to revolutionize the future.

Although there are many problems, including violent price fluctuations, deflation caused by the upper limit of quantity, waste of energy by mining, and restrictions imposed by governments of various countries, etc., it is still the most successful application of blockchain technology and outlines An ideal vision-world currencies.

Bitcoin outlines a grand blueprint. Future currencies will no longer rely on the issuance of central banks in various countries, but a global currency unification. This point of inspiration is crucial, it creates a way for us to solve many financial problems in the future.
Bitcoins and public ledger blockchain

It has been accepted by some markets in Europe and the United States and other countries, and has also spawned a large number of emerging industries, such as digital currency trading platforms. The digital currency at this stage realized part of the functions of currency and was able to realize goods transactions.

And, in this period, people finally connected the virtual currencies dug in the computer with the real value, which is a landmark.

In addition, the blockchain 1.0 era also has great limitations. At this time, people are still most concerned about digital currencies based on blockchain technology. The main focus is on how much they are worth and how to dig. How to buy and how to sell. It is also based on the limitations of application scenarios that the technology itself has not received the due attention, and everyone did not expect that the blockchain technology can be taken out separately and applied to other industries or use scenarios.

In general, blockchain 1.0 is actually an era from 0 to 1.Although it has various limitations, it is undeniable that it is great. The biggest significance of Blockchain 1.0 is that under the accumulation of many technologies, a new technology model of Blockchain was innovated, and then digital currency was used as a medium to solve the problem of financial payment and show the world The power of blockchain.

The fire of the stars can be ignited. At this point, Bitcoin and the blockchain have begun a journey of ten years and have not ended so far.

See also:

  • Predictions Blockchain
  • Cryptocurrencies Facts Predictions
  • Top Influential People in Cryptocurrency
  • Bitcoin Panic Index
  • Global Cryptocurrency Fund Development
  • Why Bitcoin Price falling

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BP: Natural gas will overtake coal to become the second largest energy source in the world in 2040

British Petroleum (BP PLC, BP) said on Thursday that most of the global energy supply growth in the next 20 years will come from renewable energy and natural gas, but large-scale investment in crude oil exploration and production is still needed to meet crude oil demand in 2040.
British Petroleum Refinery Image

BP said in its annual energy outlook report that the main assumption in the future is that renewable energy and natural gas will account for 85% of global energy growth by 2040. Renewable energy sources include wind, solar, geothermal, biomass and biofuels.

In the hypothetical situation reported, renewable energy will grow by 7.1% annually, and its share of major energy sources will increase from 4% to 15% by 2040. Natural gas is expected to grow by 1.7% annually, surpassing coal to become the world's second largest energy source in 2040, and will fight for the largest energy title with crude oil.
A British Petroleum Cap

BP said in its report that all assumptions indicate that crude oil will still play a key role in the global energy system by 2040, when crude oil demand will range from 80 million barrels per day to 130 million barrels per day. Crude oil demand is currently projected at 99 million barrels per day in 2020.

In view of this, the company believes that it will need to invest trillions of dollars in the development of new oil fields to meet global crude oil demand by 2040.
British type Homes

Under the main assumptions, BP continues to expect that global demand for crude oil will climb around 2035, to nearly 110 million barrels per day, and then remain stable until 2040. 
Until 2018, BP expected that crude oil demand would not stop growing around 2040.

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Who are the Most influential people pertaining to cryptocurrency?

    1. 10 most influential people in cryptocurrency

    2. Bitcoin currency use cases

    3. Haseeb Qureshi: A Cryptocurrency Entrepreneur's Guide

    4. Manage by law or by code?

    5. The grim future of the network and the hope of a new type of decentralized Internet

Showing Most Influential People Cryptocurrency Cryptocurrencies or Crypto currency

The 100 most influential people in cryptocurrency

CryptoWeekly's "100 Most Influential and Most Influential People in Cryptocurrency" column, this list will certainly have some subjective, but very interesting list. The following are the top ten characters. If you want to see the full list of 11-100, you can view the original text to see if your favorite idol has been selected.

At No.1 @cz_binance CZ is the founder and CEO of Binance

This is currently the fastest growing cryptocurrency exchange in the world. CZ was previously the CTO of OKCoin and the developer of He has been in the crypto field for many years, and this year he entered the list of the richest people in the Forbes crypto field.

NO.2 Brian Armstrong @brian_armstrong Brian is the co-founder and CEO of Coinbase

One of the world's largest cryptocurrency exchanges, and it is also providing a wide range of products and services for institutional investors. He has starred in the 2014 film "The Rise of Bitcoin" and frequently speaks at conferences on the power of Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies.

NO.3 Vitalik Buterin @VitalikButerin Vitalik

He is known as the godfather of Ethereum, and he is one of the key programmers who pushed the platform forward. This year, Vitalik has also begun to focus on making ICOs more secure-his recently released DAICO concept has begun to get attention as it is a more secure way to run ICOs.

NO.4 Tyler Winklevoss @TylerWinklevoss

Taylor is the head of Winklevoss Capital and the co-founder and CEO of the next-generation digital asset exchange Gemini. Winklevoss is the world's first Bitcoin billionaire, and this year he helped launch the Gemini dollar, a stablecoin designed to provide liquidity to cryptocurrency traders .

NO.5 Brad Garlinghouse @bgarlinghouse

Brad is now the CEO of crypto payment startup Ripple, which launched the xCurrent international payment agreement earlier this year. He was previously the CEO of file-sharing startup Hightail and an active angel investor, and has completed more than 40 startup investments to date.

NO.6 Roger Weir @rogerkver

Roger was one of the earliest investors in the first batch of Bitcoin startups. He is now heavily involved in Bitcoin Cash, a hard fork of the original Bitcoin protocol, designed to be used as cash (while addressing some of the key performance issues that plagued Bitcoin's core).

NO.7 Barry Silbert @barrysilbert

Barry is the founder and CEO of the Digital Currency Group, a digital currency incubator and investment fund that has been in operation for several years. He is also the CEO of Grayscale Investments, a digital currency investment fund that manages the Bitcoin Investment Trust, a private trust dedicated to investing in Bitcoin.

NO.8 Wu Jihan @jihanwu

Wu Jihan is one of the co-founders of Bitmain, the world's largest cryptocurrency mining company. He has an estimated net worth of more than $ 2B and is one of the most influential members of the blockchain industry. Before joining Bitmain, Wu Jihan had a university economics degree from Peking University.

NO.9 Michael Novogratz @novogratz

Michael was a hedge fund manager at Fortress Investment Group and is now the CEO of crypto investment firm Galaxy Investment Partners. He had previously forecast a target price of $ 20,000 for cryptocurrency next year.

NO.10 Adam Baker @ adam3us

Adam is a well-known cryptographer and inventor, known for inventing hashcash (a proof of work system), which is used by many email providers to fight spam. He is now the CEO of Blockstream, a startup dedicated to developing sidechains and other applications for the crypto ecosystem.

Bitcoin currency use case

Yesterday, David Hoffman's "Ethereum Currency Model" was shared. About Ethereum's Money story, this year's recommendation is Ben Kaufman's Money use case for Bitcoin, which mainly explains and analyzes Bitcoin from economics. Currency use case.

Bitcoin's monetary properties

 In the conclusion of analyzing the monetary attributes of Bitcoin, we saw how the transition of monetary assets from physical to digital domains has not only enabled us to achieve unprecedented improvements, but has also made the monetary attributes of assets highly flexible. Therefore, we can conclude here that, from the perspective of its "inherent" attributes, Bitcoin is unprecedentedly superior to all its predecessors.

Bitcoin production

Bitcoin production relies on a purely mathematical system. This feature provides an objective, universal way to audit the validity of Bitcoin units and enable fair and open competition in their production.

Bitcoin production seems to be the most ideal currency production process we may have. The fact that it is hard money, coupled with its simple and transparent production process, open and direct competition, and seemingly positive externalities, makes it significantly better than any of its predecessors. The second important consideration is usually related to the production process of money, which is the supply of money.

Supply of Bitcoin 

The cap is about 21 million Bitcoin units. This is often referred to as Bitcoin's "monetary policy" and is implemented by the economic activity of each participant in the Bitcoin network.

The decentralized nature of Bitcoin as a peer-to-peer network means that no central entity is authorized to determine Bitcoin's monetary policy. In view of its actual advantages, disadvantages and results, the reason for adopting a flexible monetary policy is very convincing today. This monetary policy has been considered by many to be the necessity of currency today.

Even before this modern attempt, it did not even mention its absolutely undisputed failure. Moreover, this argument becomes even weaker when we consider the more than 50 economic collapses caused by hyperinflation in the last century.

Bitcoin legitimacy

Although the possibility of acting on behalf of the government seems small in the short or medium term, this choice remains reasonable in the long run. Bitcoin has become important enough that the government has the potential to buy it as a substitute for gold, monetize it for its international monetary affairs, or as a "storage value" hedging tool.

Cognitive barriers to Bitcoin adoption

With more than a century of central bank services, people ’s general understanding of currency is completely flawed, and even more so in most academic discussions, they still believe they can use their complex mathematical models and inflation goals to "Adjust" the economy.

The last crisis of 2008 has shaken trust in the current system, which is correct, but most of the alternatives available to the public for understanding currency will only exacerbate the errors of the modern system.

Nowadays, even among many Bitcoin supporters, sayings such as "money is a statute issued by the state" or "money is just a common illusion" are only very common, which only explains the work of explaining Bitcoin and money Wide range.

Haseeb Qureshi: A Cryptocurrency Entrepreneur's Guide

Former Metastable's Haseeb Qureshi went to Dragonfly to write the first article for Dragonfly. From the perspective of VC, he founded a cryptocurrency startup. The article is very detailed. I like him to ask himself three questions first. be ready. Here are these three questions:

If you are not familiar with cryptocurrency, its culture, products and industry history, then you should take some time to learn first.

If you are not a technician, then if you want to build anything of value, you almost always need a technology co-founder. Fighting cryptocurrencies requires deep technical logging, and the founder's team rarely gets funding. Of course, the best way to find co-founders is to work at another startup.

The last question is, why build this startup? Is it for money? reputation? Or is it because the world needs what you want to build and you are the only one who can build it?

Startups that make money with little motivation. I don't know why-it doesn't seem to show the best people. On the other hand, startups eager to change the world often survive difficult times.

Another interesting piece of advice is the user's problem, all the great cryptocurrency companies that exist today have built at least what someone wanted then. These people may be just a small group: crypto punk, ETHheads, cryptocurrency traders, and more. But don't fall into the trap of building markets that simply don't exist.

The best way to bet on future trends is to build a small customer base that you believe will grow. Don't build a customer base that doesn't exist yet and try to imagine their future preferences. You will build endlessly, without feedback, and do not know if you are making any progress. For startups, this is almost purgatory.

In addition to these, he also wrote a series of suggestions on how to find VC fundraising, how to design the token structure, how to do marketing, etc. I think this is a must-read lesson for cryptocurrency entrepreneurs and it is worth recommending.

Manage by law or by code?

This article from Harvard University Press, Primavera De Filippi and Aaron Wright in "Blockchain and Law: Code Rules" examines the profound opportunities and legal and even moral challenges that blockchain technology brings.

With the wider emergence of Bitcoin and blockchain technology, we are ready to witness a new wave of decentralization and a new appeal that the world will be ruled by code rules. Blockchain technology will bring greater personal freedom and liberation, as these early technology advocates initially desired. Many crypto punk and decentralization advocates see blockchain technology as a new opportunity. They believe that blockchain technology is a new means of liberating people from the tyranny of governments and companies in a way that reminiscent of the early days of the Internet.

But this also brings great problems. Given that blockchain technology is still largely immature, there is a danger that prematurely adjusting the technology may prevent new and unexpected ones that have not been fully explored or discovered. App appears. At the same time, a complete lack of regulation can also cause problems. Given the lack of a clearly defined regulatory framework for blockchain-based applications, parties seeking to deploy the technology may find themselves in a gray area of ​​the law, unable to know whether what they are doing today is legal and will continue to do so.

The last author's words are worth our repeated thinking in the process of advancing blockchain and cryptocurrency:

 If the blockchain technology is mature, we may need to ask ourselves if we would rather live in a world where most of our economic transactions and social interactions are subject to the rule of law, which is universal, but also more flexible and ambiguous. So it's not perfectly executable, or do we prefer to succumb to code rules.
Decentralized blockchain-based applications are likely to free us from the tyranny of centralized intermediaries and trusted authorities, but the price of this liberation may be a greater threat-bound by code tyranny.

The grim future of the network and the hope of a new type of decentralized Internet

 The author is a business novelist, but this article is based on the environment that the market and politics are increasingly controlling Silicon Valley. It provides some thoughts on how the network will develop in the next ten years if the worst case happens. The author's writing is more literary and will continue to entangle the government's anti-censorship, anti-censorship, and anonymity.

If Urbit or a similar method works, maybe our dark web digital Frankenstein isn't needed at all. However, this story is unlikely to have such a happy ending. Get used to the idea of ​​stepping out of the fort and into a new and hasty new online world. Sometimes this experience can be frustrating and difficult at times, but I promise it will be more fun and rewarding than the bland hell network of the fortress.

Cryptocurrency of Bitcoin

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