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Black Fungus (Mucor or Mucormycosis) Fungal Disease

Mucormycosis is also called black mold, black fungus and mucor longum. Mucormycosis is a large genus of fungi in the Mucoridae family of the zygomycete class Mucor. It reproduces with cyst spores and conjugative spores.

Mucormycosis exists in the environment such as soil, manure, grass and air. It grows well under conditions of high temperature, high humidity and poor ventilation.

The Asian name is Mucor and the western name is Mucormycosis, also known as black mold and Mucor longum. 

The reproduction method uses cyst spores and zygospores to multiply. 

The growth environment is high temperature, high humidity and poor ventilation. It belongs to saprophytic fungi.


Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Biological traits

3. Mucor infection

4. appearance characteristics

5. Pathogenicity and immunity

6. Distribution and use

7. Microbiological examination

8. Cause disease

▪ Disease test

▪ Drug contamination

▪ Pulmonary Mucormycosis

9. Principles of Control


Mucor and Zygomycota are widely distributed in nature. They are saprophytic fungi with strong ability to decompose proteins and often cause food mildew. It is a conditional pathogenic fungus, which causes disease in the human body only when the body's immunity is low and extremely weak.


Biological Traits of Mucormycosis

Mucor is a multicellular fungus, the hypha is not separated, the branches are at right angles, sporangia stalks grow on the mycelium, and spherical sporangia are formed at the top, which contains a large number of sporangia spores.

On the SDA medium, it grows rapidly at 25°C or 37°C, forming white filamentous colonies, and the colonies become gray-brown after spore formation. Mucor has both asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.

Mucor infectionedit

The drug treatment of mucor infection should be amphotericin B. If the central nervous system or sinuses are involved, surgical intervention can be considered to reduce the mortality rate.

Fungal Disease of Mucormycosis

What are the Shape features of Mucormycosis?

The hyphae are not septal, multinucleated, branched, and can spread widely inside and outside the substrate, without false roots or creeping hyphae. Does not produce solid colonies. 

Single, raceme-shaped or pseudo-axially branched cyst stems are directly produced on the mycelium. 

There is a spherical sporangia at the top of each branch, and there are cysts of different shapes inside, but no sac holder.

A large number of spherical, oval, thin-walled, smooth cyst spores are produced in the cyst. 

After the spores mature, the sporangia burst and release the spores. Sexual reproduction uses heterogeneous or homologous coordination to form a conjugative spore. Certain species produce chlamydospores.

The mucor mycelium is white at the beginning, and then grayish-white to black, which indicates that the sporangia are mature in large numbers. 

Mucor mycelium can extend about 3 cm per day, and the production speed is significantly higher than that of shiitake mushroom mycelium.

Mucormycosis Pathogenicity and immunity

In patients with weakened immunity, mucor infection first occurs in the nose and ears. Mucor enters through the nasal cavity and respiratory tract, and can invade the maxillary sinus and orbit, causing necrotizing inflammation and granuloma.

It can also invade the human brain through the bloodstream. Cause meningitis.

It can also spread to the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, etc. The disease has a rapid onset, rapid progress, difficult diagnosis, and high mortality.

Distribution and usage

Mucor has a wide range of uses. It often appears in alcoholic medicine. It can saccharify starch and produce a small amount of ethanol, produce protease, and has the ability to decompose soybean protein. It is mostly used to make fermented bean curd and tempeh in our country. 

Image showing Mucormycosis infection

Many Mucor molds can produce oxalic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid and glycerol, and some Mucor can produce lipase, pectinase, rennet and so on. Commonly used Mucor mainly includes Mucor rouxii and Mucor racemosus. Saprophytic, widely distributed in distiller's yeast, plant residues, decaying organic matter, animal manure and soil. 

There are important industrial applications, such as using its amylase to make koji and wine using its protease to brew fermented bean curd, tempeh, etc. Representative species such as M. racemosus, M. mucedo, M. rouxianus, etc.

What is Microbiology inspection for Mucormycosis?

Take pus, sputum, sinus aspirate or autopsy specimens, digest with 10% KOH, and then microscopically examine. If you see thick hyphae with no septum, strong refractive index, and sporangia, you can preliminarily identify them.

What diseases can Mucormycosis cause?

Diseases caused by Mucormycosis. The main strain is M. corymbifer, which can invade blood vessel walls and cause thrombosis and tissue necrosis. 

It is usually secondary to diabetes or other chronic wasting diseases, and the disease is acute; severe symptoms can be fatal. 

According to clinical manifestations:

1. Cerebral mucormycosis is caused by mucor from the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses to reach the brain along the small blood vessels, causing thrombosis and necrosis.

2. Pulmonary mucormycosis is mainly manifested as bronchial pneumonia, but also pulmonary infarction and thrombosis.

3. Mucormycosis of the gastrointestinal tract, which is more common in the terminal ileum, cecum and colon, esophagus and stomach can also be involved.

Whats is Mucormycosis Disease Test?

Take the diseased tissue for direct microscopic examination, it can be seen that there is no septal hyphae. Compared with Aspergillus, the hyphae are thicker, have fewer branches, and have not many spores. 

The specimens are inoculated on the colonies grown on Sabol's medium, and they start to be white. 

Gradient gray-black, mycelium can grow spores, with sporangia spores at the end, and sometimes conjugative spores can be seen occasionally. 

Treatment can be amphotericin B, sometimes combined with surgical resection or drainage.

Drug Contamination

In 2009, a number of blood cancer and lymphoma patients in Hong Kong Queen Mary Hospital died of Mucormycosis infection. 

Allopurinol, a drug produced by Eurochem Pharmaceuticals in Hong Kong to treat gout and excessive uric acid, is suspected of being contaminated, and the content of Mucor is 100 times higher than the standard.

Pulmonary Mucormycosis

English name: pulmonary mucormycosis alias mucormycosis, mucormycosis, algae disease, zygomycosis, phycomycosis, zygomycosis, mucormycosis.

Overview: This disease is caused by several possible pathogens of the Mucoridae family. It often invades the blood vessel wall and vascular cavity, and causes inflammation and thrombosis. It is often complicated with diabetes. It is more common in burn patients.

Cause of Mucormycosis

Fungi that can cause pulmonary mucormycosis belong to the subphylum Zygomycota, Mucor, Mucorales, Mucorales, and occasionally from other families of Mucorales, such as Mortierellaceae, Cunninghamiaceae, caused by Kokomyceae, Phalaenopsis, etc. Among them, Rhizopus, Mucor and Absidia are the three most common types of fungi that cause pulmonary mucor.

Among the three types, Rhizopus is the most common type, especially Rhizopus and Rhizopus oryzae.


Principles of prevention of Mucormycosis

There are no effective preventive measures and treatment methods. Antifungal drugs such as amphotericin B can be used in the early stage, and the lesion can also be surgically removed.

Clinical case: A case of Pulmonary Mucormycosis

 Credit Authors: Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University First Hospital Mou Xiangdong; Wang Guangfa; Zhang Wei



X Ray chest


X-ray chest radiograph shows that the left lung field has decreased brightness, uneven density, and the mediastinum and trachea shifted to the left.


CT Scan

Chest CT showed the disappearance of the left main bronchus opening, the left lung consolidation with atelectasis, the left pleural effusion, and the huge round soft tissue in the left lung.

Fiberoptic bronchoscopy


Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed that the left main bronchus was completely blocked by white gelatinous material, and the carina was white ulcers.


Clinical Information

A 48-year-old female patient with intermittent fever and hemoptysis style=color:blue> hemoptysis for 6 months, exacerbated with suffocation for 7 days.


The patient had a history of type 2 diabetes for 2 years. He developed diabetic ketoacidosis with coma 6 months ago, and developed fever 1 week later. Chest X-ray showed exudative shadow of left upper lung, chest CT showed consolidation of left upper lung with cavity formation. 

The patient did not get better after a variety of broad-spectrum antibiotics, quadruple anti-tuberculosis and itraconazole antifungal therapy and developed hemoptysis.


Physical examination: left trachea, left lung percussively, and breath sounds disappeared; abdomen was flat and soft, no tenderness, 4 cm below liver ribs; pitting edema of both lower limbs.


Auxiliary inspection:

Peripheral blood leukocytes are 22.7×109/L, neutrophils are 84%, and hemoglobin is 50 g/L.


Multiple sputum smears and cultures were negative, and blood cultures were negative for bacteria, fungi, and acid-fast bacilli.


The chest radiograph showed a large area of ​​exudate from the left lung (Figure 1). Chest CT showed consolidation of the left lung with atelectasis, pleural effusion on the left, and large round soft tissue shadows in the left lung (Figure 2).


Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed that the left main bronchus was completely blocked by a white gel mass (Figure 3). The smear of bronchial secretions was negative for fungus and culture.


The pathology of the tumor showed a large number of hyphae in the necrotic tissue, and its morphology suggested that it was a mucor mycelium (Figure 4).




Diagnosis: pulmonary mucormycosis

Outcome: The patient developed massive hemoptysis (about 3000 ml) on the 7th day of hospitalization, and died after rescue.



Pulmonary mucormycosis is a severe pulmonary infection caused by some pathogenic fungi in the order Mucorales of the fungal kingdom Zygomycota. It is also called pulmonary zygomycosis (pulmonary zygomycosis). 

The body's immunity is reduced (such as diabetic acidosis, hematological malignancies, and organ transplantation or application of immunosuppressive agents).


The most common symptoms of this disease are fever and cough. More than half of patients have hemoptysis, chest pain, and dyspnea. 

Mucor has a strong penetrating power and often erodes pulmonary arterioles, causing pulmonary embolism and pulmonary infarction. If not treated in time, most patients die of massive hemoptysis.




The most common imaging manifestations of this disease are progressive and homogeneous consolidation of lung lobes or lung segments. It can also be manifested as single or multiple pulmonary nodules or masses, more common in the upper lobe. Holes appear in more than 40% of cases. Air half-moon sign is less common than pulmonary aspergillosis. Its appearance suggests a tendency to massive hemoptysis, but the prognosis of the patient is relatively good.


It should be noted that the positive rate of culture of sputum, needle aspiration and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for pulmonary mucormycosis is <5%, and the diagnosis often depends on histopathology. 

The characteristics of the mucor hyphae are: 7-25 μm in diameter, uneven thickness, branching at right angles, wide without separation or few separation, and thin wall.


Once the diagnosis is confirmed, intravenous amphotericin B should be administered immediately, and surgical resection of the lesion should be considered for those who have not improved after 2 weeks of treatment. Other commonly used antifungal drugs are ineffective.

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What is a non-fungible token (NFT)? What are the most well-known projects?

Before the advent of Bitcoin, digital information was easily copied at almost zero cost. From now on, the phenomenon of human scarcity has been renewed into the digital age. =)


non-fungible token (NFT)

Non Fungible Token, CryptoKitties

One of the first NFT projects to gain significant attention was CryptoKitties, an Ethereum-based game that allows players to collect, breed, and trade virtual cats.


Unlike criptomonedas $btc or $eth, they both create the same non-consumable tokens (NFT), which are also commonly referred to as cryptocurrency collectibles, and each non-consumable token is unique and limited in number.


Multiple projects are experimenting with NFTs for different use cases (such as games, digital identities, licenses, certificates, and plastic arts).


In addition, they can even allow some high-value items to be owned.


What is interchangeability in non-fungible token (NFT)?

The interchangeability means that each unit of activity is interchangeable, and there is basically no difference from each other. For example, a 10 dollar bill can be perfectly exchanged for another 10 dollar bill.


In the case of "irreplaceable tokens," they are cryptocurrencies with unique identifiers for each unit. This makes each unit different from the rest (ie non-consumable). It's basically NFT.


How does NFT token work?

There are different types of NFT tokens, the most famous being ERC-721 that works on the Ethereum network. 

There is currently an improved token called ERC-1155, which allows the same contract to have two types of tokens: irreplaceable and replaceable.


Where can I buy NFT tokens?

On the website of the developer of this type of token. Or in the online market, the most famous one is called Opensea (


Where are my NFT tokens stored?

In wallets that contain such tokens. For example, such as Binance Trust Wallet (


What projects are currently known to have potential?

Decentraland- is a decentralized virtual reality world where players can own and trade virtual land and other NFTs in the game.

Gods Unchained- is a digital trading card game in which cards are issued on the blockchain as NFT. 

Since each digital card is unique, players can own and trade ownership just like using a physical card.

Encrypted currency stamps-issued by the Austrian Post Office, linking the digital world with the real world. 

These stamps are used to transport mail, just like other stamps. But they are also stored on the Ethereum blockchain in the form of digital images, making them tradable digital collectibles.

Several projects of the company are tokenizing real estate companies and different scarce resources (such as water, land, etc.).

For more information, you can enter the ranking of NFT tokens on the Opensea website: https://opensea .io/rankings

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Scientist: In short, Dolphins for mating they are abnormal, they have evolved human characteristics

Dolphins should be the most friendly marine animals with humans. Those who accidentally fall into the sea, if you encounter sharks, it is probably more bad luck, but if dolphins are nearby, they may come in groups to save you, and why do dolphins? Will save people, even scientists can't explain it!

However, according to a recent study, the evolution of dolphins seems to be beyond the expectations of scientists. According to scientists, dolphins already possess some of the characteristics of humans!


In the ocean, dolphins have evolved human characteristics?

Dolphin is a collective term for some toothed whales, so dolphins are a kind of whale, and there are dozens of species under the dolphin family. 

For example, the baiji in our country is also a kind of dolphins. Their body length ranges from about 1 meter to 30 kilograms of dwarf dolphins. 

At 9.5 meters and weighing 14 tons, the killer whale uses echolocation and has a high IQ, complex brain sulcus, good memory, and is very friendly with humans.


Personality Characteristics of Dolphins

Psychologists at the University of Hull have studied 134 bottlenose dolphins in eight countries for nearly a decade. 

It turns out that their curiosity, sociality, and "personality characteristics" are completely mosaic with the "extroversion and favorability" of primates, which means that they also have their own unique personality characteristics.

They found that, just like primates, these aquatic mammals such as dolphins show curiosity, sociality and personality traits, which are a combination of "extroversion and affection." 

Generally, these professional words used to describe monkeys and apes. Previous studies believed that they have "personality characteristics" similar to those of humans.


Are Dolphines social primates?

According to Dr. Blake Morton, a psychologist at the University of Hull, animals like dolphins are as social as primates. Living in groups and socializing contributes to the development of dolphins’ intelligence. 

The "group living" of chimpanzees and bottlenose dolphins is called a "fission and fusion" society. Their group size and organization members often change during their life cycle: split or merge.


Thesis of Dr. Blake Morton's team on Dolphins

The psychological characteristics of human beings include "Openness to experience", "Conscientiousness", "Extroversion", "Agreeableness" and "Neuroticism" , The last one is also called neuroticism.


Dolphins mating

The results of the study of 134 dolphins (56 males and 78 females) by the researchers are that the characteristics of bottlenose dolphins are almost consistent with this model. 

The openness, sociality and emotional instability are the same as those of humans, but the fourth Directionality, which is a mixture of high earnestness and low neuroticism, is unique to dolphins. 

Despite this, Dr. Morton still said that dolphins are very similar to humans, and that dolphins, like other primates, have a much greater need for the brain than to complete the basic functions of the body!

Dr. Morton said that studying the smartest animal in the ocean helps to understand ourselves.


Dolphins with human characteristics, how do they mate?

Dolphins are the cutest marine animals, but scientists define them as one of the most "perverted" animals, especially male dolphins, which are not much different from "beasts". Sorry, dolphins are actually beasts!

The bottlenose dolphins mentioned above have always adopted violent behavior in the matter of reproduction. 

A group of adult male dolphins often surround the female dolphins in groups, and then flap the female dolphins with their fins, or even directly Crash them until the female dolphins cooperate to reproduce. 

Although the male dolphins are very violent, the time is very short. It only takes 10-20 seconds to end the battle.

It is said that this is due to the special structure of the dolphin’s genitals. 

For example, the male dolphin’s genital muscles are very strong and can even hold things, while the female dolphin’s nine bends and eighteen bends, the internal muscles can move on their own. 

This male dolphin can move by itself in just a few seconds. Surrendered.



In addition to violence, male dolphins are sometimes homosexual. They may even find a same-sex to live, or they can use the carcasses of other animals to solve problems on their own. 

Of course, it is normal to have unethical behavior towards their offspring or previous generations, so Zoologists say that dolphins are one of the most chaotic species of animals, even more chaotic than bonobos!


 How do humans treat cute dolphins?

In addition to being a little messy in the relationship between the sexes, the dolphin, a highly intelligent animal, is not harmful to humans. It can save your life in case of danger, so it is a good friend! But how do humans treat them?


The world’s large-scale hunting of dolphins is the Faroe Islands and Japan, especially the latter, where more than tens of thousands have been killed. 

For example, there were 13,080 whales and dolphins hunted across Japan in 2007, of which the number of dolphins hunted in Taiji Town was 1569, the documentary "Dolphin Bay" was shot in Taiji Town, of course, using the form of sneak shots, thus showing the bloody process of Japan's bloody hunting of dolphins before the eyes of global audiences.

However, even after it was made public, Japan did its own thing, and the so-called "scientific whaling" in the South Pacific continued madly. 

After all, this kind of international conventions are honestly followed. For countries with no lower limit, there is no restriction. Forceful.

Killer whales are also called killer whales, but they have no real record of killing people in the ocean. However, in the summer of 2020, there was a frantic attack on sailboats by killer whales near the Strait of Gibraltar. 

There were more than 40 incidents throughout the summer, but they only attacked the rudder. Swear not to stop without tearing the rudder to pieces!

According to the biologist Dr. Renault de Stephenis, the companions of this group of killer whales frantically attacking the rudder of the ship were injured by the rudder of the sailing ship, so they are revenge for their companions. This may lead to a result, this kind of high IQ Once animals think that humans are enemies, then our activities in the ocean will be greatly hindered in the future, after all, killer whales can easily tear people to pieces.

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Without viruses, there would be no human beings today

Reference News Network reported on March 1 that the US "National Geographic" magazine published an article in the February issue of "How Viruses Shape Our World". The full text is as follows:


Imagine what a virus-free earth would be like for Humans

The result is not as clear as you think. In fact, we live in a world of viruses. There are so many types of viruses that are countless. 

In addition to the huge number, the virus also has a significant impact. 

For life on earth, including humans, many viruses are not only harmless, but also bring evolutionary advantages.


Coronavirus and humans
Structure of Coronavirus

Without the virus, it is difficult for us to survive; without the virus, we cannot get out of the primitive mud. 

For example, there are two segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) derived from viruses, and they are now found in the genomes of humans and other primates. 

Surprisingly, without these two pieces of DNA, there would be no pregnancy. Even more surprising is that another type of viral DNA helps to pack and store memories. 

There are other genes from viruses that promote embryonic development, regulate the immune system, or fight cancer. Their significance is only just now known.


Facts have proved that viruses have also played a key role in triggering major evolution. If all viruses are eliminated, the biodiversity of the earth will collapse suddenly, as if all the nails of the beautiful wooden house were suddenly removed.


"What is a virus" is difficult to define

To recognize the ever-changing viruses, we must first solve the most basic problem: what is a virus and what it is not. 

It is relatively easy to figure out what viruses are not. They are not living cells. Cells contain multiple sophisticated mechanisms, including the synthesis of proteins and the execution of specific functions according to the cell type. 

Bacteria are also cells, with similar characteristics, but their structure is much simpler. Viruses are different from them.


Viruses are easy to describe, but difficult to define. Each virus particle contains a piece of genetic instructions. 

The instruction is either DNA or another information-carrying molecule ribonucleic acid (RNA), which is wrapped in a protein shell called a "capsid." Some viruses have an envelope outside the capsid, which protects the virus and helps it attach to cells. 

After the virus enters the cell, it will occupy the cell's "three-dimensional printing" mechanism that converts genetic information into protein. Only in this way can it replicate itself.


If the host cell is unlucky, many new virus particles will be produced. New viruses spewed out and the cells were reduced to wreckage. 

It is this kind of damage caused by the new coronavirus to human respiratory epithelial cells, which also explains to a certain extent how the virus becomes a pathogen.


But if the host cell is lucky, the virus may just stay in this stable residence, or go dormant, or reverse engineer its tiny genome into the host's genome, and then wait for the opportunity. 

The latter possibility has multiple effects on genome mixing, evolution, and even our sense of identity as human beings.


Cells and viruses love and kill each other

Viruses bring innovation, but cells are responding with innovations in their own defenses, so this is an "arms race" that is moving toward an increasingly complex. 

Many scientists assume that viruses have achieved major evolution through "virus pickpocketing", that is to say, the virus in the organic matter it infects, fishes a DNA here and a DNA there, and then applies the stolen gene fragments to itself Genome.


But Patrick Fortel of the Pasteur Institute in Paris suggested that perhaps more common is reverse theft, in which cells obtain genes from viruses. Scientists such as Fortel also hold a more thorough view: viruses are the pacesetters that contribute to genetic diversity.


Horizontal gene transfer

This view holds that in the past billions of years, viruses have stored new genetic material into the genome of cell organisms, thus enriching the evolutionary options of cell organisms. 

This peculiar process is a phenomenon called "horizontal gene transfer". Horizontal gene transfer refers to the lateral flow of genes between different gene sequences, while vertical gene transfer is a more common way of inheritance from parent to offspring.


Structural Image of Coronavirus

Fortel et al. proposed that viral genes have been "overwhelmingly" flowing to the cell genome, which may help explain some major evolutions, such as the origin of DNA, the origin of cell nuclei in complex organisms, the origin of cell walls, and perhaps even the tree of life The differentiation and so on.


There is a retrovirus among viruses whose RNA genome works in the opposite way to the conventional one. 

The conventional method is to use DNA to generate RNA, which then acts as a messenger to instruct the "stereoprinter" to synthesize proteins. 

But retroviruses use their own RNA to generate DNA and then integrate the DNA into the genome of the infected cell.


Some retroviruses infect germ cells, thereby embedding their DNA in the host's heritable genome-which brings about a major evolution. These embedded gene fragments are called "endogenous" retroviruses. If they are combined with the human genome, they become "human endogenous retroviruses" (HERV).


8% of human genes come from viruses


8% of the human genome is the DNA of this virus. In the process of evolution, retroviruses inserted them into our genetic sequence. Each of us carries 1/12 of HERV, and one of the genes with a relatively profound impact is syncytin-2.


A certain gene initially helped the virus to fuse with the host cell, and later entered the genome of ancient animals. This gene is then transformed to produce a similar protein, which helps cells to fuse, form a special structure, and eventually evolve into a placenta, opening up a new possibility for some animals: pregnancy in the body. This innovation has a profound impact in the history of evolution, allowing females to conceive offspring wherever they go, instead of leaving the developing offspring vulnerable and helpless as insects and birds leave their eggs in their nests.


This gene was first derived from an endogenous retrovirus, and was eventually replaced by other similar genes that are more suitable for this role. Over time, the new reproduction model continues to improve, and the placenta also evolves. Among such genes obtained from viruses, there is syncytin-2. There are two types of syncytin that help human cells fuse and form the placental layer near the uterus. This unique structure is responsible for connecting the mother and fetus, absorbing nutrients and oxygen, expelling waste and carbon dioxide, and possibly protecting the fetus from the mother’s immune system. Evolution to implant viral elements into humans is an effective design that is almost miraculous.


Studies have also found that there is evidence that the viral fragments produced by another human endogenous retrovirus, HERV-K, exist in the initial human embryos, or play an active role in protecting the embryos from viral infection, or Is it helpful to control fetal development, or both.


If 8% of your and my genome are retroviral DNA, then the notion that humans are unique (not to mention supremacy) may not be as conclusive as we believe.


Is the virus a blessing or a curse?


Of course, this evolutionary flexibility also has a downside: Sometimes viruses may change their hosts, jump from one organism to another, and become pathogens for new and unfamiliar hosts. This process is called "spillover." The transmission of viruses from animal hosts to humans is the source of most human infectious diseases.


In the original host, the virus may wait quietly for thousands of years, and the number and impact are very limited. The virus may reach an evolutionary compromise with its natural host, in exchange for its own safety by not causing trouble. But in new hosts, such as humans, the virus does not necessarily comply with the original agreement. If the virus not only replicates, but also spreads between people and groups of dozens of people, it constitutes an outbreak; if it sweeps across a certain community or country, it will form an epidemic; if it rages around the world, it will cause a major plague . This is the case with the new coronavirus.


Therefore, the virus has to ask and pay. It is difficult for viruses to return to their place on the tree of life. Perhaps the reason is that their life course is not completely tree-like. The tree diagram is just our traditional way of interpreting evolution, because Darwin has become the golden rule. But even as great as Darwin, he knew nothing about horizontal gene transfer. In fact, he knew nothing about genes or viruses.


Now we realize that everything in the world is quite complicated. Even a virus that is so simple at first glance is so complicated. If we see that the complex performance of viruses makes us humans understand the intricacies of nature more clearly, and if we think that the virus genes in our bodies can partly dispel our sense of indifference, then I ask you to judge whether viruses are a blessing or a curse.



Cover of the February issue of National Geographic magazine

WHO expert: Nearly 10% of the world's population has antibodies to the new coronavirus

According to a report from the Russian Satellite Network on March 1, the chief scientist of the World Health Organization Sumia Swaminatan said that nearly 10% of the world’s population already has antibodies to the new coronavirus, and continued vaccination is the only way to achieve "collective immunization" .


10% world's population has antibodies to novel coronavirus: WHO

Italy Coronavirus vaccination

In Palermo, Italy, people are vaccinated against the new crown in an orderly manner in the hospital. 

According to reports, Swaminatan pointed out in a live interview on WHO's social media accounts that the organization is tracking research on the source of infection in several cities around the world.


WHO tracking seroepidemiological studies

Swaminatan said: "WHO is tracking these seroepidemiological studies. According to the latest statistics, there are about 500 items. If you put them all together, you will find that only nearly 10% of the world's population has antibodies to the new coronavirus. ."


Swaminathan of WHO pointed out: 

“Of course there are places where 50% to 60% of the population has been infected by the virus and have antibodies, such as densely populated urban areas. But it cannot be considered that the whole city, province, state or country has achieved this. Collective immunization.” 

She explained that residents of such settlements who do not have antibodies are still at risk of infection when they go out.

Swaminatan emphasized that vaccination is the only way to achieve collective immunization on a global scale.

Update on Brazil Germany China and USA Coronavirus

Brazil discovers a new variant of the new coronavirus

According to Brazilian media reports on the 14th, Brazilian and British researchers discovered a new type of P.1 when analyzing samples of the new crown virus collected from Brazil's Amazon. Mutated new coronavirus.


This research has been published in a "virology" online forum dedicated to discussing virus evolution and other related content. According to the researchers, of the 31 new coronavirus-positive samples collected in Manaus, the capital of the Amazonian state, from December 15 to 23, 2020, 13 tested the mutant new coronavirus P.1. 

This mutant virus carries multiple mutations such as E484K, K417T, and N501Y, and has some similarities with the mutant new coronaviruses found in the United Kingdom and South Africa.


Japan recently discovered that four passengers entering the country from Brazil were infected with a mutated new coronavirus, which is not exactly the same as the mutated new coronavirus found in the United Kingdom and South Africa. 

Researchers in Brazil and the United Kingdom speculated that these four people may be infected with the P.1 mutant new coronavirus.


Researchers are currently analyzing the characteristics of this mutated new coronavirus, such as whether it is more infectious and whether it will affect the effectiveness of the existing new coronavirus vaccine.


The new crown epidemic data released by the Ministry of Health of Brazil at 18:25 on the 14th showed that there were 67,758 newly confirmed cases in the country within 24 hours, and a total of 8,324,294 confirmed cases, 1,131 new deaths and a total of 2,070,09 deaths, a total of 7,329,703 cured cases.


Important finding! German bioinformatics scientists discover new weaknesses in the new coronavirus

Recently, German bioinformatics scientists have used computer models to identify an enzyme in the human body that is essential for the reproduction of the new coronavirus. 

If this enzyme is inhibited, the virus will stop reproducing without affecting the host cell. The research helps to find new ways to fight the new coronavirus infection.


In addition to vaccines, finding effective drugs for the treatment of new coronavirus infections is also one of the important means to overcome the epidemic. 

Now, Dr. Dräger and his team from the German Infection Research Center and the University of Tübingen have discovered a weakness of the new coronavirus through a novel method that can be used to develop targeted drugs. 

Bioinformatics scientists used computer models to identify a human enzyme that is essential to viruses. 

Dr. Dräger said: "If we turn off this enzyme, guanylate kinase 1 (GK1), the virus will stop reproducing without affecting the host cell."




The research team led by Dräger has been conducting research on the new coronavirus since January 2020. He is also a young professor at the University of Tübingen, responsible for computer-based systems biology research, focusing on optimizing biotechnology processes and molecular levels. The development and progression of the disease. They successfully developed an integrated computer model with the new coronavirus and human alveolar macrophages. 

Macrophages are mainly responsible for the defense against foreign bodies in the alveoli, Dräger said: "(Previously) there is already a complex computer model of these macrophages, and we have further developed it in order to study the new coronavirus."


The starting point of the model is that the virus has penetrated into the host (ie, the human alveolar macrophages in the model) and has been reprogrammed. 

If the virus wants to produce new viral particles and spread, then it must use materials from the host and force the host cell to produce new viral components. 

Dräger said: "The biochemical reactions used by the virus in the host have been integrated into the model. 

We first analyze the components of the virus, then calculate the materials needed to produce the virus particles, and look at the biochemical reactions in the host cells during the virus infection. Changes."


In the so-called flow balance analysis, scientists systematically tested which biochemical reactions occur differently in infected cells and uninfected cells. Through these reactions, they can start further experiments. 

By specifically shutting down selected reactions, they tracked processes that are particularly important to the virus. 

For example, when guanylate kinase 1 is turned off, virus reproduction can be completely prevented. 

In alveolar macrophages, this enzyme plays an important role in the metabolism of ribonucleic acid (RNA) components, so it also plays a decisive role in the composition of new coronavirus RNA.


Dräger explained: "Without the GK1 virus, it cannot replicate, but human cells can switch to other biochemical and metabolic pathways." 

If you want to use active ingredients to inhibit enzymes without causing adverse side effects to the human body, this is an important prerequisite. Currently, the Dräger team is collaborating with Dr. Berhard Eilinger of the Fraunhofer Institute of Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology to test the effectiveness of inhibitors against the new coronavirus. 

Some enzyme inhibitors are known. Fraunhofer Research in Hamburg has a complete library containing more than 5600 active substances. 

The most important thing is that all these substances have been approved for safe use in humans.


Coronavirus in Germany

Even so, after scientists find suitable active ingredients in the laboratory, they must conduct rigorous tests. First in animals, then in humans. 

Because only in this way, people can fully grasp the interaction between the active ingredients and the immune system. 

Experts predict that if all goes well, this drug against the new coronavirus may be approved as early as the end of 2021 after clinical trials. Ehringer explained: "Maybe we can't fight this virus 100%, but only prevent 90% or 85% of the virus from reproducing. 

But as long as we buy enough time for the immune system, the result will be obvious. In addition, it is worth looking forward to. In addition, this basic method for the virus can be applied to all mutations of the new coronavirus."

China COVID Official: timely, adequate and accurate protection of the new crown virus vaccine and vaccination costs

According to the WeChat message of the National Medical Insurance Administration, on February 25, the National Medical Insurance Administration organized a national video conference on the protection of new coronavirus vaccines and vaccination costs to ensure the protection of new coronavirus vaccines and vaccination costs. 

Work is scheduled and deployed. Require timely, full, and accurate protection of vaccines and vaccination costs as the goal, and be brave to explore new paths, create new methods, take new measures, use full embroidery skills, and do good things well.

Source: WeChat ID of the National Medical Insurance Administration


Coronavirus America

Li Tao, member of the Party Leadership Group and Deputy Director of the National Medical Insurance Administration, attended the meeting and delivered a speech. 

Responsible comrades from relevant departments of the National Medical Insurance Bureau, Ministry of Finance, and National Health Commission attended the meeting. 

Responsible comrades from various medical insurance, finance, health and health departments attended the conference.


Li Tao pointed out that the implementation of free vaccination against the new coronavirus is a major decision and deployment made by the Party Central Committee and the State Council. 

Doing a good job in the protection of new coronavirus vaccine and vaccination costs is the primary political task of the current medical insurance department.

 It is necessary to have a high sense of political responsibility and work enthusiasm, and to ensure timely, full and accurate protection of vaccines and vaccination costs, and be brave to explore new paths. 

Create new methods, adopt new measures, use full embroidery skills, and do good things well.


The meeting called for the establishment of a joint work mechanism for medical insurance, finance, and health departments, clarify the division of responsibilities, refine the work plan for cost protection, and unblock information transmission channels. 

Strengthen the dynamic monitoring of the progress of vaccination and the use of funds, and effectively ensure that the vaccination and vaccination costs are settled in time and in full. (China-Singapore Jingwei APP)

Jeremy Lin was criticized as "new crown virus", systemic racial discrimination is everywhere in the United States

On February 27, local time, Jeremy Lin, an Asian-American basketball player, posted on foreign social media that he was called the "new crown virus" by another player in a recent game, and asked about this: racial discrimination in the United States "someone is listening "?


The tracing of the source of the new crown virus is a scientific issue, and many studies have shown that the new crown virus has appeared in many countries around the world long before the outbreak in Wuhan. 

However, "theory of origin" has long been used by some people as a weapon to attack and slander China. Jeremy Lin was also scolded for an Asian face, which really made people angry.


In fact, since the outbreak of the epidemic, Asian groups have suffered discrimination and even hate attacks for wearing masks, and have also been regarded as "scapegoats" for the virus. 

Statistics show that from February to December last year, there were at least 3,000 hate crimes against Asians in the United States.


At the end of January this year, an 84-year-old Asian man died after being attacked by a young man while walking in a community in San Francisco. 

On February 6, a 26-year-old Yale University Chinese graduate student Kevin Jiang was shot and killed in New Haven. 

On February 25, an Asian man was assassinated in Manhattan. The victim was in critical condition after being sent to a doctor.

It is hard to imagine that in a civilized society of the 21st century, in a country that claims to be the number one in the world, violence is so frequent and ethnic. Discrimination is so deep-rooted.


Some commentators believe that Asian Americans are currently facing two viruses: the new crown virus and the racist virus, and the latter is more "difficult to cure". In the United States, discrimination against Asians has a long history. 

As early as 1882, the United States signed the infamous Chinese Exclusion Act, which was not abolished until 1943. 

The real apology waited until 2011. The two houses of the U.S. Senate passed an apology case separately, but in the bill passed by the Senate, the word apology was not used, but a lesser degree of regret.


Even an apology is unwilling, and actual equality is even more distant indefinitely. An American equal rights person bluntly said: For a long time, Asian communities have been systematically excluded from structural power. In recent years, minorities such as Asians have all suffered undue unfair treatment in terms of education, medical treatment, and work. 

During the epidemic, ethnic minority small business operators were often excluded from the government's rescue plan. 

According to the Fed report, affected by the epidemic, about 54% of white-owned companies are currently financially "fair" or "poor." But this proportion is 79% of Asian-owned companies, 77% of African-owned companies, and 66% of Latino-owned companies.


The United States has always been known as the national melting pot, and many Americans were proud of the diversity of society. But history and reality have proved that as a country of immigrants, the race relations in the United States are actually quite fragile. 

Racial discrimination and xenophobia are everywhere, severely tearing American society. 

Even after experiencing violent incidents and protests, "political correctness" can hardly be reflected in reality. Even as a minority Obama came to power, he failed to escape the fate of poverty, unemployment, discrimination, social neglect, and violence among African Americans. 

Even he himself had no choice but to admit that the "dream of racial equality" had not yet been completed.


"All men are created equal", embedded in the first paragraph of the second paragraph of the US "Declaration of Independence". 

However, this equality must always be guaranteed and maintained by the powerful forces of the government and society. 

However, in the Western world, capital controls the economic and social cycle of a country, and the objective existence of exploitation makes resources inevitably gathered in a few people. 

The "mountain" class enjoys "positive bonuses" that are conducive to wealth appreciation, such as technology, finance, and tax avoidance. 

The "Matthew effect" of class solidification is increasing. The "golden master politics" in the United States has also intensified class antagonism. 

The seemingly democratic "one person, one vote" is actually "one dollar, one vote." Political parties that perform on stage will only serve large consortia. Minorities and the lower-level people do not. "Spoken person". 

The deep ills of the system are almost determined, and neither the government nor the people have the motivation to continuously improve the racial ills.


After the new administration of the United States came to power, President Biden issued multiple executive orders aimed at promoting racial equality in American society. 

However, the US Department of Justice took the initiative to withdraw the lawsuit against Yale University for discriminatory behavior in the admissions process. 

Some commentators pointed out that the "equality" practiced by the Biden administration does not give equal treatment to all ethnic groups, but allows "racial differences." When the government has implemented "racial preferences", can society get better?


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