Articles by "Science"


What are the Main differences between coronaviruses?

 The difference between types of coronaviruses and new coronavirus lies in virus type, clinical characteristics, route of infection and severity of disease caused.

1. Different types of viruses:

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are named for the morphology of the virus, which looks similar to a crown under an electron microscope. Coronavirus has so far been found to infect only vertebrates and can cause human and animal respiratory, digestive, and nervous system diseases such as colds and more serious diseases such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
Real coronaviruses image under microscope
Real Coronavirus image under a microscope
The new corona virus is a new coronavirus strain that has never been found in humans before. In addition to the new coronaviruses found this time, there are six more known corona viruses that infect humans. Four of them are more common in the population and have lower pathogenicity, generally causing only mild respiratory symptoms similar to the common cold; the other two are the SARS corona virus and MERS corona virus that we are familiar with.

Severity of the illness caused:

 Clinically, most coronaviruses cause mild and self-healing diseases, but a few may have neurological complications.

The illness caused by the new corona virus is more serious. A total of 41 cases of pneumonitis with new corona virus infection have been reported in Wuhan, 7 cases have been cured, 6 cases have been cured, 1 case has died, and the remaining patients are in stable condition. All patients received isolation treatment at designated medical institutions in Wuhan.

The difference between a dog parvo virus and a corona virus. Dogs are not mental, and pulled and vomited some time ago.

Difference between dog parvovirus and corona virus

Simple points are generally small stool blood, coronavirus stool is green or orange or paste.

Is coronavirus and parvovirus a disease?

Thank you in advance here! To be clear, are coronaviruses and parvoviruses a disease? Can corona virus be detected with a small test strip? My dog ​​did no minor illness! But now it's not sure if it is a corona virus, nor canine plague! I just don’t eat for 6 days now.

To be clear, are coronaviruses and parvoviruses a disease?

Can corona virus be detected with a small test strip?
My dog ​​did no minor illness!
But now it's not sure if it is a coronavirus, nor canine plague! I just don’t eat for 6 days now! Expand

Canine coronavirus disease: The incubation period of artificial infection is 24-48 hours, and the incubation period of natural cases is 1-3 days. The sick dog is addicted to sleepiness, weakness, and anorexia. It can be seen that vomiting that lasts for several days, and then diarrhea begins. Yellow-green or orange-red, stench, mixed with varying amounts of mucus, occasionally a small amount of blood can be seen in the stool.

Canine parvovirus disease: 2 types of enteritis and myocarditis can be seen:

1. Characteristics of the onset: The source of infection is mainly sick dogs and asymptomatic dogs. Rehabilitation dogs can be poisoned and detoxified for a long time, becoming a potential source of infection for the disease.

Sick dogs detoxify via feces, reaching a peak at 4-6 days after illness, and the virus content tends to decrease after 9-14 days, but the infectivity can last from 30 days to 8 months.

Rickets can cause excretion of feces, urine, vomitus and saliva from healthy dogs. Pregnant dogs can also be transmitted vertically to the fetus through the placenta. Except for dogs, animals such as wolves, foxes, and marten are susceptible to infection.

Puppies are particularly susceptible, with an incidence rate of 91.67% to 100%; the incidence rates of suckling dogs under 4 weeks of age and adult dogs over 5 years of age are 2% and 16% respectively, is common.

2. The main symptoms: the incubation period of this disease is mostly 7-14 days. Clinical manifestations are related to the age, immune status and other factors of the sick dog. The symptoms of elderly dogs are mostly recessive, and the body temperature is generally normal.
This disease can be divided into the following two clinical types:
i. hemorrhagic enteritis type: more common in adult dogs. This type is more common in old epidemic areas. Sick dogs show symptoms of intestinal inflammation, usually vomiting and diarrhea first, in addition to draining yellow or gray thin stools, and then turning into tomato juice-like bloody thin stools, emitting a bad smell. The temperature of sick puppies can rise to 40-41 degrees (adult dogs' body temperature does not increase significantly). Swollen lymph nodes, small blisters in the mouth, and ulcers after rupture.

Because the sick dog vomited and diarrhea, resulting in rapid dehydration, at the same time showing depression, anorexia, prostration, and finally death due to heart failure and acidosis.

In addition to the decrease in serum total protein, the most significant hematological examination is that the number of white blood cells has decreased sharply within 4-5 days after the illness, at 300 / cm3 or 500-1000 / cm3.

ii. Myocarditis type: This type is common in newly infected areas. More common in puppies aged 3-4 weeks. The condition developed rapidly. A few sick dogs develop mild diarrhea and vomiting, usually with sudden weakness, dyspnea, and arrhythmia, and die within minutes.

The duration of the disease varies, with the short one taking a few minutes and the elderly taking several weeks. Mostly 5-7 days.
It is worth pointing out that clinically, all puppies with arrhythmia should consider the possibility of developing this disease. Due to the severe diarrhea and strong peristalsis of the intestine, subsequent cases of intussusception and prolapse of the anus have occurred.

The incidence of this disease is 20-100%, and the mortality rate is 10% -100%, especially in puppies (9-12 weeks old) who have just been weaned.

What is the relationship between coronavirus and SARS?

SARS is a type of coronavirus. The Coronavirus family is divided into three genera: alpha, beta, and gamma. Beta gene coronaviruses include: beta coronavirus, human coronavirus HKU1, murine coronavirus, domestic bat coronavirus HPU5, Fruit bat coronavirus (HKU9), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) -related virus and 7 species.

Clinical Manifestations of SARS Virus

The incubation period is 2-10 days. Onset is rapid, with fever as the first symptom. Body temperature is usually greater than 38 ° C, and there may be chills, cough, sputum sputum, occasional bloodshot sputum, palpitations, shortness of breath, or respiratory distress.
This may be accompanied by muscle soreness, headache, joint pain, fatigue, and diarrhea. Patients often had no catarrhal symptoms of the upper respiratory tract. Pulmonary signs were not obvious, and some patients could hear a slight wet murmur.

Extended Information:

1. Transmission of SARS virus

It is excreted through respiratory secretions, transmitted through oral fluids, sneezing, and contact, and transmitted through air droplets. The peak of infection occurs in autumn, winter, and early spring. The virus is sensitive to heat. Ultraviolet rays, Lysol water, 0.1% peroxyacetic acid, and 1% keliaolin can kill the virus in a short time.

2. Prevention of SARS virus

Specific prevention of SARS virus prevention, that is, targeted preventive measures (the development of vaccines and vaccines is possible, but it takes a long time to solve the problem of virus reproduction is its problem) and non-specific preventive measures (that is, prevention of spring respiratory infections) Illness measures, such as keeping warm, washing hands, ventilating, avoiding excessive fatigue and contacting patients, and going to less public places, etc.).

What makes a new coronavirus?

Making of nCoV: Coronavirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a diameter of about 80 to 120 nm.

Its genetic material is the largest of all RNA viruses and only infects human, mouse, pig, cat, dog, and avian vertebrates. A variant of coronavirus is the pathogen that causes atypical pneumonia and belongs to the RNA virus.

I. Clinical Manifestations

Symptoms are usually acute respiratory infections with acute renal failure.

Differences between viruses

There is a genetic difference between the new coronavirus and SARS virus, and it is not as easy to spread as SARS virus. There are far fewer cases of infection of new coronavirus than SARS, and the symptoms of some patients are different from SARS.

Extended information:

What is the Way for spreading of Viruses?

Coronavirus is excreted through respiratory secretions, transmitted through oral fluid, sneeze, and contact, and transmitted through air droplets. The infection peaks in autumn, winter, and early spring. The virus is sensitive to heat. Ultraviolet rays, Lysol water, 0.1% peroxyacetic acid, and 1% keliaolin can kill the virus in a short time.

What is the Preventive approach form Viruses?

There is specific prevention for its prevention, that is, targeted preventive measures (the development of vaccines and vaccines is possible, but it takes a long time to solve the problem of virus reproduction is its problem) and non-specific preventive measures (that is, prevention of spring respiratory infections)
Measures such as keeping warm, washing hands, ventilating, avoiding excessive fatigue and contact with patients, and going to public places with fewer people, etc.).

What is coronavirus weak positive? 

Patient information: Male 1-year-old Beijing Chaoyang District Condition description (onset time, main symptoms, etc.): My teddy bear, one and a half years old, vomiting, diarrhea, has been on a hunger strike for 4-5 days, and is mentally weak. Go to the I Love I Love Pet Hospital Puppy was weakly coronavirus positive! Infusion injection for 2 days did not ...

Patient Information: Male 1 year old, Chaoyang District, Beijing
Condition description (onset time, main symptoms, etc.):
My teddy bear, one and a half years old, vomiting, diarrhea, has been on a hunger strike for 4-5 days, and has lost energy.

The infusion injection has not improved for 2 days. I think Know what a coronavirus is weakly positive, and what is the difference between small and warm dog oil? Can it be cured? Will it endanger the dog's life? Please love people who know how to help me, and help me sincerely thank you!

How can I help from Corona?

I want to know what is a weak positive coronavirus, and what is the difference between small and warm dog oil? Can it be cured? Will it endanger the dog's life? I am very worried now. Please love those who love dogs and know that friends can help me. Help me a little bit and sincerely thank you all!

I want to know what is a weak positive coronavirus, and what is the difference between small and warm dog oil? Can it be cured? Will it endanger the dog's life? I am very worried now. Please love those who love dogs and know that friends can help me. Help me a little bit and thank you sincerely.

Symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea, lack of appetite, and loss of energy. The weak positive reaction detected at this time is indicated by the middle and early stages of the onset of coronavirus. Coronavirus is a virus that attaches to the roots of intestinal villi. It continuously erodes the intestinal villi and eventually causes the intestinal villi to fall off. This causes disease.

The clinical manifestations are diarrhea and vomiting. The difference between them and the small ones is that the small viruses attack the intestines The villi's head is different from canine fever in nature. Coronal and small are gastrointestinal diseases, which are used in humans to equal gastroenteritis.

Canine fever

Canine fever is a comprehensive disease, including the respiratory system, digestive system and nervous system. The danger of these three diseases is canine plague> Small> Coronal. Generally, the coronal is better. Drip, water and food can be cured in 3-4 days.

During the drip, it depends on the nutrient solution glucose and water in the drip to maintain it. Life, if it is a regular pet hospital, the ratio of drips completely meets the needs of dogs, so there is no need to be afraid of water and food breaks.

Water and food breaks are to let the intestinal tract rest, so the intravenous method is used, and the antiviral serum is also injected at the same time. After treatment, the water intake was gradually restored, and the water intake gradually increased to the normal drinking water amount.

If the water was not spit or pulled, you could resume eating, and the food intake gradually increased to normal. These three diseases can be life-threatening if not treated well, but if treated properly, the coronal can be cured in 3-4 days, and the small 7-10 days can be cured.
Dog disease is difficult to say, mainly depending on the dog's constitution, and Sooner or later when the disease is found, canine plague has the highest mortality rate, close to 70%, and there will be various sequelae even if cured.

How is coronavirus transmitted?

For animals transmitted to humans, Mr. Zhong Nanshan, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said that this time the coronavirus was transmitted to humans by humans and caused by humans eating game.

On December 8, 2019, the first case of unexplained pneumonia was officially notified.

On the morning of December 26, 2019, Zhang Jixian, director of the Department of Respiratory Medicine of the Hubei Provincial Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, accepted four abnormal pneumonia cases. On the 27th, Zhang Jixian reported the situation of the four to the hospital leader in a timely manner, and the hospital quickly reported to the Jianghan District Disease Control Center.

On the 28th and 29th, the outpatient clinic successively treated 3 patients from the South China Seafood Market. Symptoms and lung performance were consistent in 7 patients before and after. Zhang Jixian immediately reported to the hospital again. The hospital attached great importance to it and immediately reported it.

 Although the Wuhan South China Seafood Market is called the Seafood Market, there is a large amount of wildlife trafficking in the market. The source of the new coronavirus in Wuhan this time is wildlife.

On December 30, 2019, Li Wenliang, a doctor from Wuhan Central Hospital, released a message in Wuhan University's clinical class 04 class that "seven SARS cases have been diagnosed in the South China Seafood Market", reminding classmates who are clinicians "to let family and loved ones pay attention to prevention".

In order to prove that what he said was true, Li Wenliang also sent out a group of clinical pathogen screening results and a CT scan of the patient's chest that read "Highly positive indicator SARS coronavirus positive" in the group. An hour later, he added in the group:
"The latest news is that the coronavirus infection is confirmed and the virus is being typed." For this reason, Li Wenliang was called the "whistleblower" of the epidemic. However, on January 3, 2020, the reason for "posting false statements on the Internet" was sent out by the local jurisdiction to be warned and admonished.

On December 31, 2019, 27 cases of pneumonia were found in Wuhan, of which 7 were seriously ill, and the remaining cases were stable and controllable.

The clinical manifestations of the cases were mainly fever, a few patients had difficulty breathing, and chest radiographs showed invasive lesions of both lungs. Many of these patients worked in Wuhan South China Seafood Wholesale Market, which was closed by investigation the next day.

On January 1, 2020, the official Weibo of Wuhan Municipal Public Security Bureau announced that recently, some medical institutions in Wuhan had discovered many cases of pneumonia, and the Municipal Health and Health Commission issued a briefing on this. However, some netizens publish and forward false information on the Internet without verification, causing adverse social impact.

After investigation and verification by the public security organs, eight illegal personnel have been summoned and handled according to law.

On January 3, 2020, a total of 44 patients with unexplained diagnosis of viral pneumonia were found, of which 11 were severe cases. Some of the cases were operated by Wuhan South China Seafood City. National and provincial health and health commissions sent working groups and expert teams to Wuhan.

On January 8, 2020, Li Wenliang encountered an unexplained patient with viral pneumonia and was infected. 

And on the morning of February 1, 2020, the news of his confirmed diagnosis of new coronavirus pneumonia was announced on his Weibo. In addition, several of his colleagues and parents were infected with the new coronavirus pneumonia.

On January 13, 2020, the WHO notified a case of Wuhan pneumonia in Thailand, the first case outside China. This female patient came from Wuhan.

On January 20, 2020, the high-level expert group of the National Health Commission held a press conference, and Zhong Nanshan served as the leader of the expert group.

On January 21, 2020, the first meeting of the scientific research group of the new coronavirus joint prevention and control working mechanism, Zhong Nanshan, a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and a well-known respiratory expert, served as the team leader. At the outbreak of SARS in 2003, medical workers represented by Zhong Nanshan fought against SARS through long-term efforts.

On January 22, 2020, Academician Li Lanjuan advised the State Council on the closure of Wuhan, and was the first person to propose the closure of Wuhan to prevent the large-scale spread of the virus.

At the same time, Academician Li Lanjuan also suggested that the country gradually give the younger generations after the epidemic Establish correct life orientation and life values, hoping to leave high-paid, high-welfare and high-status positions to scientific and military personnel with both talents and talents.

Academician Li Lanjuan once created the atypical pneumonia "Zhejiang Miracle". He managed 0 infections without serious sequelae.

In the early morning of January 23, 2020, Wuhan announced that the city would be “closed” from 10:00 on the same day. 

Public transportation would be suspended. For no special reason, citizens must not leave Wuhan. Some citizens rushed out before the city was closed overnight.

10 hours before the city was closed, at least 251 trains and nearly 300,000 people left Wuhan by rail. After Wuhan announced the closure of the city, at 13:00 that day, a total of 7 regions in Hubei Province also announced the closure of the city and the closure of public transport facilities such as railway stations. Subsequently, more cities have gradually entered the closed state.

On January 23, 2020, Wuhan Urban Construction Bureau convened a special conference for the Central Construction Bureau and other units to hold a special meeting. On January 24, the relevant design plan of Wuhan Vulcan Mountain Hospital was completed.

In January 29, 2020, the construction of Wuhan Vulcan Mountain Hospital was completed. Entered the ward installation period. On the morning of February 2, 2020, Wuhan Vulcan Mountain Hospital was officially delivered to the military. The total building area of ​​the hospital was 33,900 square meters, with 700 to 1,000 beds set up. Patients began to be treated on February 3. Vulcan Mountain Hospital takes only 10 days from solution design to completion and delivery, which is praised as the speed of China.
On January 25, Wuhan City decided to build Wuhan Thunder God Hill Hospital in addition to Vulcan Hill Hospital, and delivered it to use on February 8 and transferred it to the People's Liberation Army. 

The total construction area of ​​Thunder God Hill Hospital was 79,700 square meters, and a modular design was adopted. , Including the medical isolation area, medical staff living area, integrated logistics area three major areas, a total of 1500 beds.

On the first day of the Lunar New Year's Day on January 25, 2020, 29 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions initiated a first-level response to major public health emergencies. At the same time, in the afternoon of the same day, many local citizens received notifications to cancel the entertainment activities such as New Year's greetings and parties. Masks were required to be worn in public places.

On the afternoon of February 1, 2020, a reporter from CCTV News went into the warehouse of the Wuhan Red Cross to visit the reception and distribution of materials and conducted live interviews, but was interrupted in the public eye, causing a lot of dissatisfaction. At the same time, Red Some other adverse events of the Cross were also exposed by the masses.

On February 1, 2020, there was also an outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza in poultry in Hunan, with more than 4,500 broiler chickens dying. All the sick and killed poultry in the area were subsequently harmlessly treated. At the same time, three textile mill employees in Tongzhou District, Jiangsu Province, were investigated at the request of the person in charge who returned to work early. The persons in charge were sentenced to five days in administrative detention on February 2 the following day.

On February 3, 2020, the first case of a new coronavirus death occurred in the Philippines.

The patient was a 44-year-old man who recently arrived in the Philippines from Wuhan. This death was the first case of a new coronavirus death outside China.

On February 4, 2020, three leaders of the Hubei Red Cross Society were punished due to the inaction and inaction of the Hubei Red Cross Society in the receipt and distribution of donated funds and supplies, and the Zhangqin Red Cross Party Group was dismissed. Group member, full-time vice chairman position.

At 2:58 am on February 7, 2020, Li Wenliang, an ophthalmologist at Wuhan Central Hospital, was unfortunately infected during the fight against the pneumonia epidemic of the new coronavirus infection, and died after a full rescue. After Li Wenliang's death, some public welfare organizations in the society donated like his family. At the same time, with the approval of the Central Committee, the State Supervisory Committee decided to send an investigation team to Wuhan City, Hubei Province, to conduct a comprehensive investigation on the problems reported by the masses involving Dr. Li Wenliang.

At 2:00 pm on February 8, 2020, a press conference was held in Shanghai. Health and epidemic prevention experts emphasized that the currently identified pneumococcal transmission routes of new coronavirus infection are mainly direct transmission, contact transmission, and aerosol transmission (suspected). The virus can survive for several hours on smooth surfaces, one day at a suitable temperature and humidity, and five days in a suitable environment.
Direct transmission refers to the infection caused by the patient's sneezing, coughing, talking droplets, and exhaled gas directly inhaled.
Aerosol transmission refers to the mixing of droplets in the air to form aerosols which cause infection after inhalation.
Contact transmission refers to the deposition of droplets on the surface of an article, contact with contaminated hands, and then contact with the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, nasal cavity, eyes, etc., causing infection.

On February 8, 2020, using the new coronavirus-infected pneumonia diagnosis and treatment plan (the fifth edition) as a guide, the first phase of the new crown-free plasma treatment of 3 critically ill patients was carried out in Jiangxia District First People's Hospital, and the patients received treatment. After 12 to 24 hours, laboratory tests showed that the major inflammation indicators decreased significantly, the proportion of lymphocytes increased, blood oxygen saturation, viral load and other key indicators improved overall, and clinical signs and symptoms improved significantly. New crown special free plasma products are plasma donated by high-priority new crown virus specific antibodies donated by rehabilitation patients, processed after virus inactivation, and tested against new crown virus neutralizing antibodies and multiple pathogenic microorganisms. Treatment of patients. From the perspective of clinical pathogenesis, most patients with neocoronary pneumonia after treatment and rehabilitation will produce specific antibodies against neocoronavirus in the body, which can kill and clear the virus. At present, under the premise of lack of vaccines and specific therapeutic drugs, the use of this special-free plasma product to treat neocoronavirus infection is the most effective method, which can significantly reduce the mortality of critically ill patients.

On February 13, 2020, Zhong Nanshan's team detected a new coronavirus in the stool of patients, and academician Li Lanjuan's team also made a similar discovery. At the same time, medical experts also found that patients with new coronary pneumonia will develop severe respiratory failure. Compared with SARS, their respiratory failure progresses faster.

Coronavirus will seriously attack the lungs, causing the lungs to be covered with pectin-like secretions. In severe cases, the ventilating function is completely lost, and the concentrated oxygen can not enter the blood, and it can fibrosis the lungs, whiten the lungs, and irreversible fibrosis, unless the lung is transplanted, and the patient is also severely attacked by the heart.

The treatment of such patients is more difficult than before. Not only that, but the coronavirus also attacks the kidneys and testes of patients, which has a certain impact on male fertility.

On February 13, 2020, Ma Guoqiang ceased to hold the posts of Deputy Secretary, Standing Committee Member, Member of the Hubei Provincial Party Committee and Secretary of the Wuhan Municipal Party Committee, and Wang Zhonglin, Secretary of the Jinan Municipal Party Committee, took over as Member of the Standing Committee of the Hubei Provincial Party Committee and Secretary of Wuhan Municipal Party Committee.

Jiang Chaoliang ceased to hold the posts of Secretary, Standing Committee and Member of the Hubei Provincial Party Committee, and Ying Yong took over. Many other officials were also removed from the virus, such as Zhang Jin, secretary of the Party Committee of the Hubei Provincial Health Committee, and Liu Yingzi, director of the Hubei Provincial Health Committee.

The outbreak of the virus had a great impact on the Chinese economy

Due to the severe epidemic situation, some commercial activities were forced to stop, enterprises were forced to resume work, and many medical staff and various staff struggled on the front line, tired of their jobs, and even Some people have died forever. At the same time, the deceased who died of new coronary pneumonia shall not hold farewells or perform other funeral activities, shall not use burial or other methods to preserve the remains, shall not be transported, and shall be cremated nearby.

As of February 11, 2020, a total of 1,716 medical personnel were infected, but there have also been incidents of escape. For example, Li Wenjie, director of the Zhangjiajie Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, left the post for fear of being infected, and took his family to Thailand to escape. Dismissal, there have also been some unscrupulous traders selling fake and shoddy masks, or coaxing prices to send money to the country, etc., and even use the epidemic to carry out fraud. For example, the artist of the Lehua Entertainment, Huang Zhibo, was suspected of using false sales masks to implement online fraud. There are even people who know the infection and spread the virus maliciously. The state has also issued policies to combat these acts.

At the same time, there are difficulties for one side to support. The outbreak of the new coronavirus has caused many domestic companies and citizens to donate materials. Due to the epidemic in China, it has also affected the tourism and normal economic exchanges in some countries. The state has also assisted China for various reasons, such as Russia, Pakistan, Japan, Iran, etc. Russia has aided China with a large amount of materials and sent experts to China. Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman Zaharova was in the news. In the press conference, Chinese was used to encourage China to fight the epidemic. Pakistan was not rich, and also tried its best to assist in the epidemic. Iraq suffered from the war, but raised 70 tons of materials to aid China. When Japan donated supplies, it wrote ancient poems on donations. The Japanese Proficiency Test HSK Office donated 20,000 masks and a group of infrared thermometers to universities in Hubei. The eight letters were written in the letters: Mountains and Rivers Exotic, Wind and Moon Same Day. The medical materials jointly donated by the four organizations including the Japan Pharmaceutical NPO Corporation Human Heart Association, Japan Hubei General Chamber of Commerce, and the like stated that Qi Yue was undressed and she was in the same clothes as Zi. The Japanese Maizuru city aided Dalian materials, and wrote the first ancient poem: Aoyama is in the same cloud and rain, and Mingyue was once the two towns, so it also won the favor of many people in China. After donating supplies, Japan also had an outbreak of coronavirus pneumonia, and the kit of materials donated by China to Japan read: "Put me a peach, and report it to Qiong Yao."

However, some countries and regions fell into trouble in this incident. For example, some Western media deliberately discredited China in this outbreak. The Wall Street Journal published an insulting article "China is the real" sick man in Asia ", which caused dissatisfaction among the people. The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs demanded The Wall Street Journal reported an apology and revoked three Wall Street Journal reporters' press cards in Beijing.

There are also Indian bans on export of masks and cotton, Indian hacker organizations launched attacks in the medical field to fight the epidemic, and Indian dignitaries went to southern China to carry out activities. While Taiwan bans masks, it is also trying to use the epidemic to take advantage of the robbery. Taiwan's "Vice President" Lai Qingde not only visited the United States, but also hoped to expand the so-called "international space" in Taiwan. On February 9, 2020, the Eastern Theater of the Chinese People's Liberation Army organized sea and air forces to conduct combat readiness cruises, and launched a variety of weapons and equipment, such as destroyers, bombers, fighters and early warning aircraft, to test the multi-arms integrated joint combat capabilities. The air force cruised through the Bus Straits and Miyako Straits and conducted targeted combat exercises. On the afternoon of February 10th, the official Weibo post of the Chinese Air Force released multiple photos and a 17-second video showing the pictures of multiple H-6K bomber formations flying. During this period, multiple F-11 fighters were escorted and equipped. The article said "Today, see God of War again!". It can be seen from the picture that all bombers and fighters are equipped with missile weapons. There are reports in Taiwan that there are multiple PLA fighter planes, almost following yesterday's route, crossing the Bus Strait from the southwest waters. PLA fighter planes have been detouring for 2 consecutive days, which is quite rare.
As of February 15, 2020, the outbreak of the new coronavirus has resulted in 66,576 confirmed diagnoses, 1,524 deaths, and 8,101 cures. The data is still being updated.

According to the report of the Beijing Health Commission, the overall treatment rate of Beijing Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital was 87% and the total effective rate of Chinese medicine treatment was 92%.

After the spread of coronavirus in China, confirmed cases have appeared in various parts of the world. The global epidemic prevention situation is not optimistic. Due to the new crown pneumonia epidemic, Ukrainian citizens returning from Wuhan chartered flights have also been blocked by local residents. Fearing infection with the new crown virus, hundreds of local residents blocked the roads, and some threw them into police escort buses. Stones, projectiles, etc.

On January 21, 2020, the United States announced the first confirmed case of new coronavirus infection. 

The patient returned to the United States from Wuhan on the 15th, went to a medical institution on the 19th, and was confirmed on the 20th. "Some 14,000 people died of influenza in the United States may have died of the new crown virus." Some public opinions, such as "the United States is the birthplace of the virus," have also caused the United States to quickly spread rumors. A Japanese media report on the 21st made "the flu is actually a new crown virus." Questions about the "new crown virus has spread in the United States", and even "new crown virus is a US-made biological weapon". In order to refute these sensational "conspiracy theories", US politicians aimed at Russia for the first time, but were attacked by Russian officials responded directly to pure rumors.

On February 19-20, 2020, 28 cases were diagnosed in Iran in the Middle East and 6 died.

On February 21, 2020, three cases of coronavirus pneumonia were found in Italy, and increased to 157 cases on the 23rd. Italy adopted the "cities closure" measure. However, on February 23, about 15,000 people in Ivrea, Italy ignored the threat of the epidemic. Participated in the annual "Orange War", causing concern. At the same time, many other European countries have confirmed cases.

On February 24, 2020, 763 cases were diagnosed in South Korea and 7 people died.

 A 61-year-old female infected with infection in Daegu, South Korea refused to be tested after the symptoms of fever appeared. She also ran to worship at Xintiandi Church. Close contacts were even more As many as thousands of people almost wiped out the church. The aunt ’s operation of the gods also made the Xintiandi Church famous, and caused widespread concern about Korean cults. Hundreds of participants participated in these cult activities each time. Due to the cult activities, the phenomenon of "super spread" appeared. Daegu City announced or even entered a state of emergency. However, led by the minister of the Korean Christian Federation South Korea ’s Pan-National Struggle Headquarters (referred to as the Pan-Douban) still forcibly held a rally in Gwanghwamun Square in Seoul on the 23rd. Due to concerns about the spread of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, the rally was prohibited in Gwanghwamun Square and other places. Judicial treatment policy, but Pan Douban held a rally for two consecutive days. Quan Guangxun even said, "Are you infected with virus among you? Come to worship next week, and the Lord will heal you." It doesn't matter, our destination is paradise, we are the ones who defeated the death. "Subsequently, Seoul Central District Court has issued an arrest warrant against Jeon Kwang-hoon. The epidemic also caused the flight from South Korea to Qingdao to be full.

In Japan, 838 cases have been confirmed. As early as February 5, 2020, 10 people on the luxury cruise ship "Diamond Princess" were diagnosed with the new coronavirus. Passengers and crew members without symptoms were required to leave the ship for isolation for 14 days. A total of 3,711 people were carried on board. Because the Japanese government has basically adopted a laissez-faire response to the Diamond Princess, which has caused the epidemic to spread explosively on board, it has also made the Japanese government criticized by domestic and foreign public opinion. In the end, in the face of the out of control situation of the Diamond Princess, Japan still had to release passengers and disembark. At this time, a considerable number of passengers were not sick and became ill in the enclosed space on the ship. It can be said that it is more dangerous to disembark the passengers than to begin with. Already.
On February 15, 2020, tens of thousands of participants were crowded together during the annual "Okayama Nude Festival" held in Okayama, Japan, but no one wore a mask. The next day, 11 regions of Japan were held as scheduled. The marathon competition with more than 100,000 people participated. China has taken measures to close the city against the epidemic situation, but under the current situation, the closure of the city will cause a severe blow to the Japanese economy and will not be conducive to the daily lives of the Japanese people. It is only 5 months from the Tokyo Olympics and Japan ’s It can be said that every effort is made, and such a huge investment also means that Japan is not willing to postpone or even cancel the Olympic Games.

On February 24, 2020, experts from the China-WHO joint inspection team said

 Many people say that there is no way without medicines and vaccines, and China's approach is to use whatever you have, and save lives as you can. The Chinese method is the only method that has proved successful. We must recognize that the contributions of the people of Wuhan are owed to you by the world. UN Secretary General Tres said: In order to prevent and control the epidemic, the Chinese people have contributed to all humanity by sacrificing normal life. I am grateful. At the same time, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China adopted a decision on a comprehensive ban on illegal wildlife trade and the abolition of bad habits of wild animals.

On February 25, 2020, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism issued a notice that Chinese tourists were repeatedly unfairly treated in the United States due to excessive US epidemic prevention measures and the domestic security situation in the United States. Chinese citizens must not travel to the United States in the near future.

On February 25, 2020, Tianjin University's laboratory announced that it has developed an oral vaccine for the new crown virus, but it has not yet been clinically tested.

References: People's Daily Online-Breaking Five Rumors of a New Coronavirus. Telling You How to Protect Yourself

Options: A: Are there formed nuclei B: Are there any cell structures C: Are there cell walls D: Are there any genetic material

Options: A: Are there formed nuclei B: Are there any cell structures C: Are there cell walls D: Are there any genetic materials

C Coronavirus has no cell structure and is inherited from RNA. It relies on host cells to replicate and is highly variable. E. coli also has no cell structure but a cell wall. Both have genetic material
Difference between dog parvovirus and corona virus.

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How to Safely Use and Dispose Needles and Syringes Safely at Home, Work and Travel?

Sharps is the medical term for instruments with sharp points or edges that can pierce or cut through the skin. It can be used at home, at work and on the go to manage health conditions in people or their pets, including allergies, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, infertility, migraines, multiple sclerosis, osteoporosis, blood clotting. disease and psoriasis. These needles and syringes require proper use and disposal for safety.

Infographics showing safe use of sharps

What are some examples are sharp needles and syringes?

Examples of sharp objects include:

    Needle: A hollow needle used to inject medication(s) under the skin

    Syringes: devices used to inject drugs into the body or remove fluid from the body

    Lancets: Lancets, also known as "fingerstick" devices - instruments with short, double-edged blades that are used to collect drops of blood for testing. Lancets are often used to treat diabetes.

Auto-injectors: Auto-injectors, including epinephrine and insulin pens: Syringes pre-filled with liquid medicine intended for self-injection into the body

    Infusion sets: Hose systems with needles used to administer drugs into the body. Connecting needles/sets - needles that connect the tubing used to transfer fluid in and out of the body. It is mainly used in hemodialysis patients at home.


How to throw Sharps?

Used sharps should be immediately placed in a sharps disposal container. FDA-approved sharps containers are usually available at pharmacies, medical supply companies, health care providers, and online. 

These containers are made of shock-resistant plastic with burr-free sides and bottoms. They also have a tight-fitting, puncture-resistant cover.


Picture showing sharp disposal

If an FDA-approved container is not available, a durable plastic household container such as a laundry detergent container can be used as an alternative.

What is the importance of safe sharps disposal?

Used needles and other sharps are dangerous to people and pets if not disposed of safely, as they can harm people and spread infections that cause serious health problems.

The most common infections are:

  1.     Hepatitis B (HBV),
  2.     Hepatitis C (HCV) a
  3.     Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Safe disposal of sharps is important whether you are at home, work, school, traveling or other public places such as hotels, parks and restaurants. 

Do not dispose of loose needles and other sharps (that have not been placed in a sharps container) in household or public waste or garbage, or flush them down the toilet. This puts waste and sewer workers, janitors, housekeepers, household members and children at risk.


Infographics showing safe sharp disposal methods

Pet owners who use needles to administer medication to their pets should follow the same guidelines for disposing of sharps used for humans.

What to do if you accidentally stick a used needle or other sharp object?

If you are accidentally pricked by someone's used needle or other sharp object:

  1.     Wash the affected area immediately with soap and water or a skin disinfectant (antiseptic) such as alcohol or hand sanitizer.
  2.     Seek immediate medical attention by calling your doctor or local hospital. Follow the same instructions if you get blood or other body fluids in your eyes, nose, mouth, or skin.

Refer Also|: Syringes and Needles FAQ

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Syringe and Needle to Inject in Medical and Other Fields 

A syringe is a simple piston pump consisting of a piston (although in modern syringes it is a plunger) that fits snugly into a cylindrical tube called a barrel. The plunger can be pulled linearly and pushed into the tube, allowing the syringe to enter and expel the liquid or gas through the discharge port at the front (open) end of the tube. The open end of the syringe can be connected to a hypodermic needle, syringe, or tubing to direct flow in and out of the cylinder. Syringes are commonly used in clinical medicine to administer injections, infuse intravenous therapy into the bloodstream, apply compounds such as glue or lubricant, and collect/measure fluids. The word "syringe" is derived from the Greek σύριγξ (syrinx, meaning "pan flute", "tube").

Showing syringe with needle


Definitions of Syringe

Following are some proper definitions of syringe:

  §  A device consisting of a nozzle of various lengths and a squeezable rubber flask and used for injection or irrigation

  §  A gravity device consisting of a reservoir attached to a long rubber tube ending in a replaceable nozzle used for vaginal or bowel irrigation.

  §  An instrument (for example, for injecting drugs or collecting body fluids) consisting of a hollow cylinder attached to a piston and a hollow needle

  §  A medical device that is used to inject fluid into, or withdraw fluid from, the body. A medical syringe consists of a needle attached to a hollow cylinder that is fitted with a sliding plunger. The downward movement of the plunger injects fluid; upward movement withdraws fluid. Medical syringes were once made of metal or glass, and required cleaning and sterilization before they could be used again. Now most syringes used in medicine are plastic and disposable.

What is hypodermic needle?

A hypodermic (hypo - under, dermal - skin) needle is a hollow needle that is often used with a syringe to inject substances into the body or to extract fluids from the body. It can also be used to collect fluid samples from the body, such as taking blood from a vein by venipuncture. Large-bore subcutaneous intervention is particularly useful in the treatment of catastrophic blood loss or shock.

Infographics on hypodermic needle

The hypodermic needle also ensures rapid delivery of fluids. It is also used when an injectable substance cannot be taken orally because it is not absorbed, like insulin, or because it damages the liver.

Hypodermic needles also play an important role in research that requires sterile conditions. 

A hypodermic needle reduces contamination during sterile substrate inoculation in two ways:

i. its surface is extremely smooth, which prevents airborne pathogens from being trapped between the surface irregularities of the needle, which can later be transferred to the medium as contamination. 

ii. The needle tip is extremely sharp, which can reduce the diameter of the remaining hole after the membrane is broken, thereby preventing microbes larger than the hole from contaminating the substrate.


What are medical syringes?

The threads of the Luer lock tip of this 12mL disposable syringe keep it securely connected to a tube or other apparatus.

Medical syringe

Syringe usually made entirely of glass, with no parts made from metal, nor any other material.


What is antique glass and metal syringe?

The syringes and needles market sector includes disposable and safety syringes, injection pens, needleless injectors, insulin pumps and specialty needles.

Syringes are used with injection needles to inject fluids or gases into body tissues or to remove them from the body. Injecting air into a vein is dangerous because it can cause an air embolism.

Prevention of embolism by removing air from the syringe is one of the reasons for the familiar image of holding the syringe up, tapping and releasing a small amount of fluid before injecting blood flow.

Showing antique glass and metal syringe

The syringe barrel is made of plastic or glass, usually has graduated markings to indicate the amount of liquid in the syringe, and is almost always transparent. Glass syringes can be sterilized in an autoclave.

Plastic syringes can be two- or three-piece. The three-piece syringe contains a plastic piston/rubber-tipped plunger to create a seal between the piston and cylinder, while the two-piece syringe is designed to fit perfectly between the plastic piston and cylinder around the seal without the need for a separate synthetic rubber piston.

Two-piece syringes are traditionally used in European countries to avoid the introduction of additional materials, such as silicone oil, which are required to lubricate the three-piece piston.

Most modern medical syringes are plastic because they can be cheaply thrown away after one use, reducing the risk of spreading blood-borne diseases.

The reuse of needles and syringes has caused the spread of diseases, especially HIV and hepatitis, among drug users.

Syringes are also often reused by diabetics because they can go through several daily insulin injections several times a day, which has become a problem that many can afford. Even if only one person uses the syringe and needle, the procedure is still dangerous because it can carry bacteria from the skin into the bloodstream, causing serious and sometimes fatal infections.

 In the medical environment, disposable needles and syringes effectively reduce the risk of cross-contamination.

Medical syringes are sometimes used without needles to orally administer liquid medicine to small children or animals, or milk to small animals, because the dose can be accurately measured and it is easier to inject the medicine into the mouth than the test object. drink from a measuring cup.


What type Tip Designs of Syringes exist?

Syringes have different designs for the area where the blade fits into the body of the syringe. Perhaps the most famous of these is the Luer lock, which simply twists the two together.

Bodies with small, simple joints are known as sliding tips and are used when the syringe is attached to something that does not have a screw lock mechanism.

Similar is the catheter tip, which is a sliding tip, but longer and tapered, so it's good for pushing into things where a plastic cone would fit tightly. It can also be used to wash wounds or large abscesses in veterinary use.

Infographics showing antique glass and metal syringe

There is also an eccentric tip, where the nozzle at the end of the syringe is not in the center of the syringe, but to the side. This is why the blade attached to the syringe is roughly in line with the walls of the syringe itself, and is used when the blade needs to be very close to parallel to the skin (for example, to inject a superficial vein or artery).


What are multipoint needle syringes?

There are syringes designed to be refilled from a built-in tank (container) after each injection, so they can perform multiple or multiple injections in one refill. It is rarely used in human medicine due to the risk of cross-infection with needles.

A multipoint needle syringes

Exceptions are the personal insulin auto-injector used by patients with diabetes and dual-chamber syringes designed to administer pre-filled saline flush after medication.


What are Standard U-100 insulin syringes?

Insulin syringes are marked with "units" of insulin.

Syringes for insulin users are designed for standard U-100 insulin. The dilution of insulin is such that 1 ml of liquid insulin contains 100 basic "units" of insulin.

Because insulin vials are usually 10 mL, each vial contains 1,000 units.

U-100 insulin syringes

Insulin syringes are specially made for self-injection and have friendly features:

• finer needles for less pain

• Shorter needles because the insulin injection is subcutaneous (under the skin) instead of intramuscular

• Markings on insulin units to facilitate drawing a measured dose of insulin and

• Clear the dead space to reduce complications caused by incorrect monitoring of symptoms of different insulin strengths. Size and designation of the U-100 syringe


What are venom extraction syringes?

Venom extraction syringes differ from standard syringes because they usually do not penetrate the wound. The most common types have a plastic mouthpiece placed over the affected area and then the plunger of the syringe is retracted, creating a vacuum that supposedly draws in the venom. 

Venom extraction syringe

Attempts to treat a snakebite in this manner are expressly discouraged as they are ineffective and may cause further damage.

Syringes of this type are sometimes used to remove botfly larvae from the skin.


What are dose-sparing syringes?

A dose-sparing syringe and needle being used to draw up a Covid-19 vaccine

A dose-sparing syringe is one which minimises the amount of liquid remaining in the barrel after the plunger has been depressed.

Showing dose-sparing syringes

These syringes feature a combined needle and syringe, and a protrusion on the face of the plunger to expel liquid from the needle hub.

Such syringes were particularly popular during the COVID-19 pandemic as vaccines were in short supply.



What are oral syringes?

An oral syringe is a measuring device which doctors use to accurately measure doses of liquid medication, expressed in milliliters (ml). This type of syringe does not have threaded points, as there is no need to insert a needle or other instrument.

The contents of this syringe are simply sprayed or sucked from a syringe directly into the mouth of a person or animal.

An Oral syringe

Oral syringes come in a variety of sizes ranging  from 1 to 10 mL and larger. The most commonly used sizes are 1 ml, 2.5 ml and 5 ml in hospitals and clinics.


What are dental syringes?

A toothpick is used by dentists to inject anesthesia. It consists of a capped syringe attached to a sealed cartridge containing anesthetic solution.

In 1928, Bayer Dental developed, developed and manufactured a closed cartridge system under the registered trademark Carpule®. The current owner of the trademark is Kulzer Dental GmbH.

Carpels have long been reserved for anesthetics for dental use. It's practically a bottomless bottle.

This is replaced by an elastomer plug that can be inserted into the body of the cartridge.

This stopper will be pushed into the plunger of the syringe. The neck is closed with a rubber cap.

A dental syringe

The dentist inserts the cartridge directly into a stainless steel syringe that has a double (disposable) needle. A tip located on the side of the container breaks the capsule and the plunger pushes the product. Thus, the product does not come into contact with the surrounding air during use.

An accessory tool (usually part of a dentist) used to deliver water, compressed air, or a mist (created by combining water and compressed air) into the oral cavity for the purpose of rinsing (removing debris from the area being worked on) dentist . ), also known as a dental syringe or dental irrigation nozzle.

The three-way syringe/nozzle has separate internal channels that deliver air, water or a mist created by combining compressed air with a stream of water. The syringe tip can be separated from the main body and replaced if necessary.

In the UK and Ireland, hand syringes are used to inject lidocaine into patients' gums.



Syringe Regulation

In some jurisdictions, the sale or possession of hypodermic syringes may be controlled or prohibited without a prescription by an authorized professional, due to its suspected use with illegal intravenous drugs.


What are some Non-medical Uses of Syringes?

Syringes have many non-medical applications like:

  1. Recreation
  2. Injecting liquid or fluid into any object, etc.


What are laboratory applications of syringes?

Laboratory grease, often used to lubricate burrs and stopcocks, is sometimes filled into syringes for ease of use.


Some chemical compounds such as thermal paste and various adhesives, e.g. epoxy, sold in prepackaged syringes.

Disposable medical syringes are often used in research laboratories for their convenience and low cost.

Another application is to use the tip of a needle to add fluids to confined spaces, such as washing some scientific equipment. 

It is often used for measuring and transferring solvents and reagents where high accuracy is not required. On the other hand, microliter syringes can be used to measure and dispense chemicals very accurately using a small diameter capillary like the barrel of the syringe.

The polyethylene construction of these disposable syringes usually makes them relatively chemically resistant. 

However, there is a risk that the contents of the syringes will leach plasticizers from the syringe material. Where this is a problem, non-disposable glass syringes may be preferred.

Glass syringes may also be preferred where a high level of precision is important (ie, quantitative chemical analysis) because their engineering tolerances are lower and the plungers operate more smoothly. In these applications, pathogen transmission is usually not a problem.

Syringes used with a long needle or cannula are also useful for transferring fluids through rubber septa when oxygen or atmospheric moisture is excluded. Examples include switching to air-sensitive or pyrophoric agents such as phenylmagnesium bromide and n-butyllithium. Glass syringes are also used to inject small samples for gas chromatography (1 μl) and mass spectrometry (10 μl). 

Injection drivers can also be used with syringes in cooking

Another use of syringes in cooking is to inject liquids (such as sauce) into other foods or to make certain sweets.

Syringes can also be used when cooking meat to improve flavor and texture by injecting juices into the meat, and when cooking to inject fillings into baked goods. Typically, these syringes are made of stainless steel components, including the barrel. This facilitates easy disassembly and cleaning.


Other Uses

Syringes are used to fill ink cartridges with ink in fountain pens. Common shop applications include injecting adhesive into tight spaces to repair joints where disassembly is impractical or impossible; and inject lubricants into work surfaces without spillage.

Sometimes a large syringe without a needle is used for very small farmed mammals.

Historically, large pumps that used a reciprocating motion to pump water were called syringes. Bombs of this type are used as fire extinguishers.

There are fountain syringes where the liquid is in a bag or can and goes through a tube into the syringe. In earlier times, enema syringes were used for this.

Loose snus is often consumed using one's own syringes. The mouthpiece is removed so that the opening is the width of the room. Snus can be tightly packed in the chamber and fall over the upper lip. Syringes, called slicers, are also made for this specific purpose.


Blunt needle assemblies are useful for industrial and non-medical applications

The blunt needle assembly provides many useful applications in both industrial and non-medical applications. The types of needles used in these types of establishments are usually not sterile because the processes in which they are used do not require sterile needles. 

A blunt tip is often preferred over a sharp tip as it helps reduce the risk of accidents such as puncturing the skin. The flat tip also helps prevent damage to other materials in the areas where it is used. For example, needles may be part of your ink cartridge filling processes. You want to make sure the needle fills the cartridge but is not sharp enough to go through the plastic chambers where the ink is in the cartridge.


Do arts and crafts companies use blunt needle assemblies to make products?

Small businesses that make their own arts and crafts products by hand often use blunt needle sets. Common applications include the use of needles to apply glues, paints and adhesives. Needle assemblies are designed for use with corded bottles such as syringes. Needle size, like wall thickness, determines how effective glues, paints, and pipe glues are. Depending on the types of products you make, you can use different gauge sizes and wall thicknesses. You can also use custom and secondary processes in situations where you have specific requirements. Another option you can consider to get different dispensing needles is to get them in lab kits.



History of Syringes Development

De Medicina by the Roman author Aulus Cornelius Celsus, later the first medical textbook to be printed

•          Piston syringes were used in ancient times. During the 1st century AD Aulus Cornelius Celsus mentioned the use of them to treat medical complications in his De Medicina.

•          9th century: The Iraqi/Egyptian surgeon Ammar ibn 'Ali al-Mawsili' created a syringe in the 9th century using a hollow glass tube, and suction to remove cataracts from patients' eyes, a practice that remained in use until at least the 13th century.

•          Pre-Columbian Native Americans created early hypodermic needles and syringes using "hollow bird bones and small animal bladders".[33][34]

•          1650: Blaise Pascal invented a syringe (not necessarily hypodermic) as an application of what is now called Pascal's law.

•          1844: Irish physician Francis Rynd invented the hollow needle and used it to make the first recorded subcutaneous injections, specifically a sedative to treat neuralgia.

•          1853: Charles Pravaz and Alexander Wood independently developed medical syringes with a needle fine enough to pierce the skin. Pravaz's syringe was made of silver and used a screw mechanism to dispense fluids. Wood's syringe was made of glass, enabling its contents to be seen and measured, and used a plunger to inject them. It is effectively the syringe that is used today.

•          1865: Charles Hunter coined the term "hypodermic", and developed an improvement to the syringe that locked the needle into place so that it would not be ejected from the end of the syringe when the plunger was depressed, and published research indicating that injections of pain relief could be given anywhere in the body, not just in the area of pain, and still be effective.

•          1867: The Medical and Chirurgical Society of London investigated whether injected narcotics had a general effect (as argued by Hunter) or whether they only worked locally (as argued by Wood). After conducting animal tests and soliciting opinions from the wider medical community, they firmly sided with Hunter.

•          1899: Letitia Mumford Geer patented a syringe which could be operated with one hand and which could be used for self-administered rectal injections.

•          1946: Chance Brothers in Smethwick, West Midlands, England, produced the first all-glass syringe with interchangeable barrel and plunger, thereby allowing mass-sterilisation of components without the need for matching them.

•          1949: Australian inventor Charles Rothauser created the world's first plastic, disposable hypodermic syringe at his Adelaide factory.

•          1951: Rothauser produced the first injection-moulded syringes made of polypropylene, a plastic that can be heat-sterilised. Millions were made for Australian and export markets.

•          1956: New Zealand pharmacist and inventor Colin Murdoch was granted New Zealand and Australian patents for a disposable plastic syringe.

See also

•          Fire syringe has two meanings:

o          A fire piston, a fire starting device

o          A squirt, in the form of a large syringe, one of the first firefighting devices in history used to squirt water onto the burning fuel.

•          Autoinjector, a device to ease injection, e.g. by the patient or other untrained personnel.

•          Hippy Sippy

•          Jet injector, injects without a needle, by squirting the injection fluid so fast that it makes a hole in the skin.

•          Luer Taper, a standardized fitting system used for making leak-free connections between syringe tips and needles.

•          Needle exchange programme, is a social policy based on the philosophy of harm reduction where injecting drug users (IDUs) can obtain hypodermic needles and associated injection equipment at little or no cost.

•          Trypanophobia, a fairly common extreme fear of hypodermic syringes

•          Syrette, similar to a syringe except that it has a closed flexible tube (like that used for toothpaste) instead of a rigid tube and piston.

•          Syringing the ear to remove excess ear wax.

•          Syrinx, the nymph from classical mythology after which syringes were supposedly named.

•          Safety syringe, with features to prevent accidental needlesticks and reuse

•          Vaginal syringe


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