What is Black Fungus?

 

Black Fungus Complete Details

Black fungus Auricularia auricula (L.ex Hook.) Underw, also known as black vegetable, fungus, cloud fungus, belongs to the fungus family and belongs to the genus Auricularia. It is a precious medicinal and edible colloidal fungus in my country and a recognized health food in the world. The Chinese people knew and developed black fungus as early as 4000 years ago in the Shennong era, and began to cultivate and eat it. There is also a record of eating black fungus at the Emperor's Banquet in the Book of Rites. At present, black fungus is cultivated in various provinces in the northeast, north, central and south, southwest and coastal areas of China.  

According to modern scientific analysis, the content of protein, vitamins and iron in the dried black fungus is very high. The protein contains a variety of amino acids, especially lysine and leucine.  

 

Can Eating Long Soaked Black Fungus be Poisonous?

The protein content of black fungus is comparable to animal food, and it has the reputation of "the meat of the vegetarian". The fungus itself is non-toxic, but long-term soaks will degenerate to produce biotoxins, or breed bacteria, fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms. 

Its symptoms are the same as mushroom poisoning. Acute liver and kidney failure are often the main clinical manifestations. 

In severely ill patients Prone to multiple organ dysfunction and failure.


More changes in nitrite content

There are rumors that the nitrite content of black fungus after long soaking will increase, increasing the risk of stomach cancer. 

Studies have measured the nitrite content after 24 hours of storage at room temperature and cold storage, and found that no matter what the temperature, the change of nitrite after 24 hours is very small. The overall nitrite content has increased slightly, and the impact on the human body is minimal.


How to soak fungus correctly?

Fungus can be soaked in cold water (warm water in winter). After 3 to 4 hours of soaking, water slowly penetrates into the fungus, and the fungus returns to a translucent shape. The fungus soaked in this way not only increases in quantity, but also has good quality.


Content Organization

Name black fungus, Auricularia auricula, nicknamed light fungus, thin fungus, cloud fungus, Basidiomycota, Agaricidae, Fungus


Table of Contents

1. Category

2. Morphological characteristics

3. Distribution range

4. Planting points

5. Nutritional ingredients

6. Chemical composition

▪ Black fungus polysaccharide

▪ Adenosine substances

▪ Fungus melanin

▪ Other ingredients

7. Main value

8. Medicinal functions

9. Products

▪ Black fungus five-spice dried

▪ Black fungus wafer

▪ Black fungus instant noodles

▪ Black fungus sand board sugar

▪ Black fungus instant powder

▪ Other products

10. Recipes

11. Food nutrients


Category

Black fungus grows on broad-leaved trees such as oak, elm, poplar, banyan, acacia, or decayed wood and coniferous fir.


Image of Black Fungus
Black Fungus



Black Fungus Growth

Growing in dense clumps can cause wood decay. Fungus grown on different trees has different titles, and their efficacy is also different. 

According to the "Compendium of Materia Medica", Sang'er treats women with leakage of redness and whiteness, blood disease, agglomeration in the abdomen, swelling and pain. 

It can also cure nosebleeds, intestinal wind and diarrhea, benefit the five internal organs, suitable for intestinal gas, and detoxify.

Five hemorrhoids and anus prolapse, lower blood to treat heartache, women's sores in the vagina, treat wind and break blood, benefit power.

Willow ears invigorate the stomach and regulate qi. In addition, other fungus have their own curative characteristics.


What are the Morphological Characteristics of Black Fungus?

Black fungus is leaf-like or forest-like, with wavy edges, thin, 2-6cm wide and 2mm thick, with side

The raw short stalk or narrow base is fixed on the substrate. In the beginning, it is soft gelatinous, sticky and elastic. 

Later, it has a little cartilage. After drying, it shrinks strongly and becomes black, hard and brittle horny to nearly leathery. The outer edge of the back is curved, purple-brown to dark blue-gray, with sparse short hairs.


Distribution Area

Because black fungus is cold-resistant and sensitive to temperature, it is mostly distributed in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, mainly in Asia, China, Japan and other countries, of which China has a high output. 

In Asian region, many provinces and regions such as Heilongjiang, Jilin, Hubei, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Hunan, and Guangxi have artificial cultivation and natural black fungus growth.


Planting Points

Black fungus is traditionally cultivated as segment wood. After substituting cultivation was successfully carried out in the late 1980s, substituting cultivation became the main cultivation method for black fungus.


Black fungus planting process Black fungus planting has a very sophisticated process, among which the main ones are the following:

Selection and construction of ear field

For the selection of the ear field, the main conditions are good ventilation and sunlight, and at the same time facilitate drainage and irrigation, and pay attention to stay away from pollution sources. 

For the construction of the ear field, pay attention to the choice of iron wire for the bed frame, which can save raw materials, have better ventilation and light transmission, and can be recycled. 

The setting of spraying water is mainly overhead treatment, which can make the spraying effect more uniform and save water resources. The spraying equipment needs to be arranged before the show.


Mixing

The black fungus dressing is to mix the main ingredient with calcium carbonate and bran evenly, and then adjust the water content to about 50%.


Bagging

The material of the bag is low-pressure polyethylene material, the specification is 14.7m×53cm×0.05cm, the bag needs to be dense enough to not have a soft feeling, and at the same time, ensure that the culture material of each bag is about 1.5kg.


Vaccination

Before this link, you need to put down the hanging curtain of the bacteria-cultivating shed, and then, pay attention to disinfect the inoculation box, control the disinfection time at more than half an hour, clean and expose the inoculation needle and sleeve, and then disinfect and scrub with alcohol. 

The seeds can be soaked in approximately 300 times the amount of clomiphene, and the soaking time is about 5 minutes. After that, they can be dried. The vaccination personnel should wash their hands with alcohol. After washing their hands, they should be dried in the vaccination box.


Bacteria

In the process of planting black fungus, this link is very important. The management of fungus is black wood


The key to ear cultivation is to reasonably control the temperature in the shed, which is directly related to the survival of mycelium. Therefore, we must pay attention to strict control and the temperature must meet the actual standards. 

Regarding the placement of mycelium, it is mainly after inoculation that the sticks should be placed in a “line-shaped” stacking method. Inoculation of single sticks with three holes and four holes, pay attention to the opening of the scar. 

The scar opening for two-way inoculation needs to face both sides, and the stack is about 7 stories high. On the top layer, pay attention to the shading treatment on the side of the inoculation opening to avoid yellow water.


Nutrient Content

Black fungus is not only smooth, tender and delicious, but also rich in nutrients. It enjoys the reputation of "vegetarian meat" and "vegetarian king". It is a well-known tonic. 

According to relevant investigation and analysis, every 100g of fresh fungus contains 10.6g of protein, 0.2g of fat, 65.5g of carbohydrate, 7g of cellulose, and also contains thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, carotene, calcium, phosphorus, iron, etc. 

A variety of vitamins and minerals, especially iron is the most abundant, 185mg of iron per 100g of fresh fungus, more than 20 times higher than celery, which contains the highest iron content in leafy vegetables, and more iron in animal food.

The highest amount of pig liver is nearly 7 times higher, so it is known as the "iron champion" in food. In addition, the protein of black fungus contains a variety of amino acids, including lysine, leucine and other essential amino acids, which have high biological potency. 

Black fungus is a kind of glial fungus, which contains a lot of gum, which has a good lubricating effect on the digestive system of the human body. It can eliminate residual food and difficult-to-digest fibrous substances in the stomach and intestines. 

It also protects against unintentionally eaten wood residue, sand, etc. The foreign body has a dissolving effect. Therefore, it is the health food of choice for cotton spinning workers and workers engaged in mining, dust, and road protection. 

The phospholipids in black fungus are nutrients for human brain cells and nerve cells, and are a practical and inexpensive brain tonic for teenagers and mental workers.  


Chemical Composition

Black fungus polysaccharide

Black fungus polysaccharide is one of the main chemical components of black fungus. The fruit body of black fungus contains 4 kinds of polysaccharides, namely: F I A, F I -B, F II and F III, among which F I-A and F I are acidic heteropolysaccharides. 

Chemical analysis of the purified black fungus polysaccharide, mannose, glucose, xylose and hexuronic acid are the main components, and its molar ratio is 0.35:0.26:0.25:0.14. 

The aminodextran analogs in invertebrate tissues, the fucose sulfated polysaccharides in marine algae, and heparin all have anticoagulant or antiplatelet aggregation activities, but the anticoagulant polysaccharides in black fungus have similar Structural difference.


Adenosine

Black fungus contains a water-soluble component that can inhibit platelet aggregation, which has been confirmed to be adenosine after many tests.


Fungus melanin

The melanin isolated from black fungus is a colored polysaccharide peptide composed of glucose, mannose, galactose, fucose and a short peptide chain. These components do not show color when they are separated into monosaccharides. 

It is soluble in water and has the physiological activity of enhancing the immune function of the body. Nitratin isolated from the fruit body of fungus has antifungal effect.


Other Ingredients

Black fungus contains ergosterol, dihydroergosterol, lecithin, cephalin and sphingomyelin, as well as vitamin A, vitamin D2 and vitamin K.


Main Value

Black fungus has been a famous edible fungus and medicinal fungus in my country since ancient times. It is the best edible fungus and is known as the precious king of edible fungi. 

Black fungus has the functions of lowering blood fat, anti-thrombosis, anti-aging, anti-tumor, etc. It is an ideal health food resource whether it is eaten directly or used as a food formula.


Medicinal Function

Chinese medicine believes that black fungus is sweet and flat in nature, has the functions of clearing the lungs and moisturizing the intestines, nourishing yin and nourishing blood, and promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis.


Black fungus improves eyesight and stomach and other effects. It can be used to treat uterine bleeding, hemorrhoids, blood dysentery, anemia and constipation. At the same time, the fermentin and plant alkaloids contained in it can promote the secretion of the digestive tract and urinary tract glands, and cooperate with the secretion to catalyze the stones, and have obvious detoxification effects on gallstones and kidney stones. 

The modern medicinal research on black fungus began in the 1980s, and it was first discovered that it has a significant effect on inhibiting platelet aggregation, which has attracted the attention of the world. Wu Wutong and others extracted and isolated the important active ingredient black fungus polysaccharide from black fungus. 

In the following 20 years, a large number of pharmacological studies have been carried out on black fungus polysaccharides, revealing the extensive physiological activities and extremely high medicinal and health functions of black fungus.


Improve the body's immune function

Immunization is a physiological process for humans and animals to prevent biological pathogenic factors. Chen Qionghua et al. found that black fungus polysaccharide can increase the spleen index, half hemolysis value and E-rosette formation rate of mice, promote the phagocytic function of macrophages and lymphocyte transformation, thereby improving the immune function of the body. 

Zhang Linghua et al. reported that after intraperitoneal injection of black fungus polysaccharide in mice, humoral and cellular immunity increased significantly. Zhang Caiqing and other studies believe that black fungus polysaccharide has little effect on rat red blood cell agglutination, but it can significantly enhance the phagocytic function of mouse macrophages.


Anti-tumor effect

The anti-tumor effect of black fungus polysaccharide is indirectly produced by acting on the body's defense system, and its important mechanism is to enhance the immune function of the body's cells. 

AMisaki et al. studied the correlation between the chemical structure of polysaccharides extracted from black fungus fruiting bodies and their anti-tumor activity, and believed that the water-soluble glucan components in black fungus had obvious anti-tumor effects. 

Intraperitoneal injection of black fungus polysaccharide can inhibit the growth of solid tumor S180 in mice. Intravenous injection is effective in inhibiting Lewis lung tumor, B16 melanoma and H22 liver cancer. 

The optimal effective dose is 20μg/kg. Zong Canhua and other experimental studies have found that black fungus polysaccharides can increase serum NO content in H22 mice and promote tumor cell apoptosis.  


Anti-aging Effect

Black fungus polysaccharide has a protective effect on body damage and can delay tissue aging. It is considered to be an ideal anti-aging health product. 

Wu Xianrui et al. reported that black fungus polysaccharides can significantly enhance the flying ability of Drosophila and the swimming endurance of mice, significantly reduce the lipofuscin content in the myocardium of mice, and increase the activity of SOD in the brain and liver of mice. 

Zhou Huiping and others reported that black fungus polysaccharides can prolong the lifespan of fruit flies, increase the non-specific resistance of elderly mice to harmful stimuli, reduce the content of lipid peroxides in animal plasma, and reduce the production of lipofuscin.


Anti-radiation Effect

Chen Zhiqiang and others injected 2 mg of fungus polysaccharide per mouse into the intraperitoneal cavity of mice for 7 consecutive days and irradiated with 60Co gamma rays for a total dose of 800 roentgen. 

The results showed that the survival time of mice was 24 days longer than that of the control group, and the survival rate was 1.56 times. 

Black fungus polysaccharide has a protective effect on radioactive cell damage. Research by Fan Lisheng and others found that the mice’s bone marrow micronucleus rate and sperm aberration rate were significantly reduced, the survival rate was increased, and the survival time was prolonged by administering middle and high-dose black fungus polysaccharide solution to mice. Black fungus polysaccharide has good anti-radiation effect.


Anticoagulant Effect

Black fungus polysaccharide has the effect of inhibiting platelet aggregation, and its mechanism is mainly to inhibit the activity of thrombin. Domestic studies have shown that in vitro tests with 0.1mL of 30μmol/L polysaccharide solution mixed with 0.9mL of rabbit blood can prolong the clotting time by 2 times. 

Mice were divided into intravenous injection, intraperitoneal injection and gastric gavage with 50 mg/kg, and the clotting time was 2.1, 1.3 and 1.3 times longer than that of the control group.


Lipid-lowering Effect

Studies have reported that 300mg/kg black fungus polysaccharides per day is continuously administered to hyperlipidemia mice for 12 weeks. It has been determined that it can significantly reduce the serum total cholesterol content and atherosclerosis index of mice, and increase serum and liver resistance. Oxidizing ability. 

Cai Xiaoling et al. injected black fungus polysaccharides into hyperlipidemia mice every day. One week later, the cholesterol content in the serum of the mice was significantly reduced. 

Zhou Guohua and others used different concentrations of black fungus polysaccharides to test high-fat model mice, and the results showed that the serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins of the black fungus polysaccharide group mice were lower than those of the control group to varying degrees, but high Density lipoprotein was significantly higher than the control group, indicating that the black fungus polysaccharide has the effect of lowering blood lipids.  


Hypoglycemic Effect

Zong Canhua et al. tested and analyzed the effect of black fungus polysaccharide on reducing blood sugar in diabetic mice.

The results showed that, compared with the model control group, after 15 days of administration, the blood glucose of the mice in each dose group of black fungus polysaccharide was significantly reduced. 

Han Chunran et al. used cellulase and protease to extract polysaccharides from black fungus and studied its blood sugar-lowering function. 

They found that black fungus polysaccharides can significantly reduce the blood sugar level of diabetic mice when the dose is more than 200mg/kg, but it is not.

The blood sugar level of normal mice has no effect, indicating that black fungus polysaccharide has a good preventive and preventive effect on diabetes.


Other Effects

Shen Jianhe et al. found in the test results of rabbits that black fungus polysaccharide can significantly prolong the formation time of specific thrombus and fibrin thrombus, shorten the length of thrombus, and reduce the wet and dry weight of thrombus. 

In addition, black fungus polysaccharide also has many functions such as anti-ulcer, anti-hepatitis, anti-infection, anti-mutation, and promoting nucleic acid and protein biosynthesis.  


Black Fungus Spiced Dried

Choose black fungus without mold, rotten and insects, soak in water for 1 hour, cut off the base and culture medium, etc., after washing, soak in 1.5% alum solution for 40 minutes, stir several times during the process, remove the black fungus, and use water rinse clean. 

Boil licorice, Guiertong and other spices with water for 2 times. After filtering, mix the filtered juice, add sugar, salt, citric acid, etc., mix well, put in a jar, pour black fungus, soak for 6h, remove and drain, spread Sun or dry until 80% dry, and then return to the vat to soak for 6 hours. 

Boil the black fungus and juice in a pot, boil for 15 minutes, dissolve in sodium benzoate and sodium saccharin, return to the vat to soak for 4-6h and then remove, spread or dry until 80% dry, and then return to the vat to soak until all the juice is absorbed. 

When the last time it is dried to 80% dry, stir in licorice powder, seal and pack, it is the finished product.


Black Fungus Wafers

Weigh the milk powder and lard according to the amount, mix and stir, add in powdered sugar and black fungus extract, continue to stir, then add flavor, vanillin, preservatives, vitamin C, folic acid, L-lysine, and stir for later use (Used to make sandwiches). 

Add appropriate amount of water to the flour, then add powdered sugar and leavening agent, stir together, and bake in a far-infrared oven to make a crust. According to the conventional method of making biscuits, the biscuits are sandwiched and formed, cut into pieces, sorted, sorted, and packaged.  


Black Fungus Instant Noodles

Preparation of black fungus extract: 0.2 kg of dried black fungus, crushed, added 2 kg of water, boiled for 30 minutes, filtered to obtain the first extract. Heat 1.5 kg of water in the remaining residue, boil for 20 min, filter to obtain the second extract, combine the two extracts, heat and concentrate to 1.5 kg for later use. 

Layering: Pour the black fungus extract, eggs, and refined salt into the dough mixer and mix evenly, then pour the flour into the dough mixer and mix evenly, then stir for 20 minutes to make the dough flexible and elastic, then take it out and press it into noodles. 

Deep-fried packaging: Put the pressed noodles in a 150°C oil pan, fry them until they are cooked thoroughly and remove them. After cooling, they are packaged in plastic bags, put in a packet of condiments, and sealed.  


Black fungus sand board sugar

Put the red granulated sugar in the pot, add a small amount of water, and cook on a low heat until thick, add the black fungus powder, mix thoroughly, and stop the fire. 

While it is hot, pour the granulated sugar into a large enamel plate coated with cooking oil, let it cool a little, and flatten the sugar. Cut into small pieces with a knife, and after cooling completely, serve as brown-black fungus sand board sugar.


Black Fungus Instant Powder

Black fungus powder is used as the main material, combined with black beans and hawthorn. The processing method is: black fungus is washed, dried, crushed and sieved. Black beans are cleaned, peeled, degreasing, soaked, dried, crushed and mixed. 

Use auxiliary materials such as starch, syrup and salt to make fine powder; slice the hawthorn, boil, filter, concentrate, and dry to make powder; finally, mix, pack, and sterilize the three powders to make black fungus instant powder.


Black Fungus Drink

Process flow: fresh black fungus→soaking→sorting→cleaning→cutting→pre-cooking and extraction→filtering→filter residues→pulping→fine grinding→mixing→homogenization→vacuum degassing→bottling→sterilization→cooling→finished products.  


Candied black fungus

Process flow: fresh black fungus → sorting → washing → sugar stains → candied cooking → baking → packaging → inspection → finished product.


Black Fungus Sweet Soup

Process flow: dry black fungus → weighing → soaking → washing → shredding → ingredients → high pressure cooking → cooling → sub-packing → sterilization → inspection → finished product.


Black Fungus Fruit Sauce

Process flow: dry black fungus → soaking → picking → rinsing → refining → sugaring → boiling → ingredients → concentration → canning → sealing → sterilization → cooling → inspection → finished product.


Recipe

Red Date Black Fungus Soup

Method: 5 red dates, 15g black fungus, wash the dates, soak the black fungus in cold water, put them in a bowl together, add appropriate amount of water and rock sugar, put the bowl in the pot and steam for 1 hour, eat red dates and fungus. Drink soup.

Taken twice a day, it has the effect of clearing heat and nourishing blood, suitable for patients with anemia.


Sweet and Sour Black Fungus

Method: 300g black fungus, soaked in cold water, washed, sliced ​​with a kitchen knife, washed 50g water chestnuts, peeled, smashed with a knife, pour oil into the wok, burned to seven mature, black fungus, water chestnuts Put it in the pot, stir-fry for a while, then add soy sauce, sugar and fresh soup. When the soup is boiling, thicken it with wet starch, add rice vinegar, and pour some cooked oil on it.


Fungus and jujube porridge

Method: Take 150 grams of fragrant glutinous rice, 30 grams of black fungus, 20 jujubes, raisins and rock sugar.

Soak the fungus for half a day and shred it, then cook the porridge with japonica rice and jujube. After boiling, add the fungus and rock sugar, and boil it into a porridge.  

This porridge can nourish the lungs, nourish the stomach, nourish the yin and nourish the stomach, replenish qi and blood, and strengthen the brain and heart.  

 

Food Nutrition

Food name Black fungus

Content reference about the content per 100g of food

Protein 10.6 g

 

Post a comment

[blogger]

Contact form

Name

Email *

Message *

Powered by Blogger.
Javascript DisablePlease Enable Javascript To See All Widget