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The USA Government Official Positions and Related Duties

  1. Name the affiliations of officials such as the President, the Secretary of Defense, the Minister of Police and so on.
  2. Talk about their corresponding duties. In other words, what role do they have in this office.
  3. Detailed, complete and even extra points.

The US government's institutional framework is derived from the US Federal Constitution. The federal constitution is the basic document of the US government and the highest law in the United States. Its main content is to establish a federal state. Each state has greater autonomy, including legislative power. It formulates the national system, government system, and the principles of the country's operations, and clarifies that the three branches of the national government—the legislative, executive, and judicial powers—separately exercise their respective responsibilities and restrict each other.

(A) The Legislature (US Congress)

According to Article 1 of the Federal Constitution, all legislative powers of the Federal Government are vested in a Congress consisting of two chambers (the House of Representatives and the Senate). Members of both houses are directly elected by voters in each state. The Senate consists of two senators from each state and a total of 100 people.

Senators serve a six-year term, with elections held every even-numbered year, and one third of the senators are re-elected. The Senate is chaired by the Vice President, but the Vice President does not have the right to vote except when there is a stalemate.

The House of Representatives is elected by the states in proportion to their population, with a total of 435 members. The term of office of members of the House of Representatives is two years. The House of Representatives elects its own chair of the House.

The U.S. Congress holds mid-term elections every two years, which means that all 435 seats in the House of Representatives must be re-elected, and one-third of them must be re-elected. Generally speaking, the party of the incumbent president will lose some seats in the midterm elections.

The United States Congress has gradually formed today’s Senate and House committee systems according to the actual needs of legislation and the Congress and Institutional Reform Laws in different periods.
These committees are the core of Congress’ deliberations on various legislative bills and have great power. All bills submitted to Congress must first be reviewed or amended by the committee before being passed to the Senate or House of Representatives for discussion.

When a bill is discussed in the Senate or House of Representatives, members vote on it. A bill passed by either chamber must be submitted to the other chamber for consideration.

If the bill is amended by the second chamber, it will be resolved through a consultation committee composed of some members of both chambers.
Once the bill is passed in both houses, it must be sent to the president for signature before it can become law. If the president vetoes, the bill can be made into law with a two-thirds majority approval in both houses.

There are more than 20 standing and special committees in the current (107th) Senate, including:

  1.  Rules and Administrative Committees
  2.  Appropriation Committees
  3.  Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Committees
  4.  Military Committees
  5.  Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committees
  6.  Budget Committees Business
  7. Science and Transportation Committee
  8.  Energy and Natural Resources Committee
  9.  Environment and Public Works Committee
  10.  Finance Committee
  11.  External Relations Committee
  12.  Government Affairs Committee
  13.  Judicial Committee
  14.  Labor and Human Resources Committee
  15.  Special Committee on Ethical Standards
  16.  Indian Affairs Committee
  17.  Intelligence committees
  18. Small business committees
  19. Special committees for the elderly
  20. Veterans affairs committees and more

The House of Representatives also has more than 20 standing committees and special committees, which include:

  1.  Government Reform and Supervision Committee
  2.  Agriculture Committee
  3. Appropriation Committee
  4.  National Security Committee
  5.  Banking and Financial Institutions Committee
  6.  Budget Committee
  7.  Economic and Educational Opportunities Committee
  8.  Business Committee
  9. International Relations Committee
  10.  House of Representatives Supervision Committee
  11.  Judicial Committee; Resource Committee; Transportation and Infrastructure Committee
  12.  Procedure Committee
  13.  Scientific Committee
  14.  Special Intelligence Committee
  15.  Small Business Committee
  16.  Veterans Affairs Committee
  17.  Official Code of Conduct Committee
  18. Fundraising Committee, etc. 

In addition, the Senate and the House of Representatives also have four joint committees, namely the Economic Committee, the Library Committee, the Printing Committee and the Taxation Committee.

Other important institutions set up by the US Congress include the General Accounting Office and the Congressional Budget Office.

(B) Judicial Organs

The U.S. judiciary is composed of the Supreme Court of the United States, 11 United States Sentencing Commissions, 91 District Courts, and three Special Courts ) And the Federal Judicial Center.

The presidents and judges of the Supreme Court and the Federal Court are nominated by the President and appointed by the Senate. 
The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States and the only court specifically created by the Federal Constitution. 
The Supreme Court is composed of a Chief Justice and 8 Justices.

According to the Constitution, the Supreme Court has the power to interpret the constitution, can declare federal and state laws unconstitutional, has the right of first instance in cases involving ambassadors, ministers, consuls, and state parties, and has the right to appeal decisions in lower courts. 
Regardless of the first instance and final instance, the Supreme Court's decision is final.

Each appellate court has between 3 and 15 appellate judges. They accept most appeals against district court decisions and have the power to review orders and decisions of federal independent agencies.
The decision of the Court of Appeal should also generally be considered a final judgement.

District courts are the basic courts of the federal court system, with each district court having 1-27 judges. The Federal District Court hears cases involving federal government in various districts (such as postal abuse, theft of federal government property, etc.), litigation among citizens of different states, US citizens, and foreign citizens.

The judges of the special court are also appointed by the president on the recommendation and approval of the Senate and serve for life. Main claim courts, customs and patent appeals courts, etc.

In addition, state, county, and city court systems are not part of the federal court system.

Secondly, the establishment of the US government administrative department

The executive branch of the US federal government consists of three parts: the President and the White House, 19 departments, more than 60 independent bureaus, and 4 quasi-official agencies.

a. The President and the White House

1. President The United States Federal Constitution stipulates that the President is the head of state, government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

he President of the United States is also one of the most powerful positions in the world. In terms of legislation, he can veto any bill passed by Congress, that is, he has legislative veto power. 
He can submit annual state of the union address, budget address, economic address and various special issues. In his speech, he proposed to the Congress a legislative initiative, that is, the right to initiate legislation. He also has the right to convene a special session of the Congress.

In judicial matters, the President specifies the appointment of federal judges, including members of the Supreme Court, but must be approved by the Senate; It is also possible to grant a complete or conditional pardon to anyone convicted of breaking federal law except for those who have been impeached.

Administratively, the President can issue decrees, regulations, and instructions, and can remove or remove public officials, but senior officials (including Cabinet ministers, deputy ministers, assistant ministers, etc.) are subject to approval by the Senate.

The right to call the national guards of the states to serve the federal government. 
In times of war or national crisis, Congress can give the president greater powers to deal with the country's economy and protection Security of the United States. 
The power to declare a state of emergency, command and command the armed forces; in foreign affairs, he is responsible for relations between the United States and foreign countries.

It has the right to establish diplomatic relations and conclude administrative agreements with foreign governments on behalf of the United States. 
Power to appoint ambassadors. However, the conclusion of treaties and the appointment of ambassadors must be approved by the Senate. and many more.

The President is elected for a term of four years and is eligible for re-election once. In the event of the death, resignation or disability of the President, the Vice-President takes over the presidency.

II. Presidential Cabinet The highest decision-making body of the United States Government is the Presidential Cabinet. The Presidential Cabinet is established by the President in accordance with the de facto needs of governance. 
Cabinet members are made up of ministers and other officials designated by the President who deal with specific national and international affairs. Legally speaking, the cabinet actually only plays the role of assistant to the president and advisory board, and does not have the power to make collective decisions.

Among the important cabinet members and officials of the Bush Administration, in addition to Vice President Richard B. Cheney and Secretary of State Colin Powell, there are also 14 ministers, namely the Minister of Agriculture Ann M. Veneman, Minister of Commerce Don Evans, Minister of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Minister of Education Rod Paige ), Minister of Energy Spencer Abraham, Minister of Health and Social Affairs Tommy Thompson, Minister of Housing and Urban Development Mel Martinez, Minister of Home Affairs Gale Norton, Labour Minister Elaine Chao, Minister of Transport Norman Mineta, Minister of Finance Paul O'Neill, Minister of Veterans Affairs Anthony · Anthony Principi, Minister of Justice John Ashcroft, and Homeland Security Minister Tom Ridge.

In addition, Andrew H. Card (Jr.), director of the White House Office, Christie Todd Whitman, director of the Environmental Protection Agency, and Mitchell E. Daniels, director of the Office of Management and Budget.
Jr. Director of the National Drug Control Policy John Walters, and US Trade Representative Robert B. Zoellick are also members of the Cabinet.

III. The White House's "Political Research Office" Many important decisions and plans of the US President come from several important policy research institutions established in the White House, such as the National Security Council, the President's Economic Advisory Board, the Office of Management and Budget, and the National Drug Control Office. 
 Office of Policy Research, Office of Science and Technology Policy, and Office of the United States Trade Representative.

The National Security Council was established under the National Security Act of 1947 and is based in the President's Executive Office. The current committee is chaired by Joseph Biden. 
Other statutory members include Vice President Cheney, Secretary of State Powell, and Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld. Gen. Henry H. Shelton, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, served as a military adviser to the committee, and CIA Director George J. Tenet served as an intelligence adviser.

The White House Chief of Staff Andrew H. Card (Jr.), Treasury Secretary O'Neal, Presidential Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, and Presidential Economic Policy Assistant Larry Lindsay are also members of the committee Permanent members are usually invited to meetings. 
Other officials were invited to participate in related meetings. National Security Council helps President formulate national and international military, intelligence, and economic policies on national security.

Research and analyze domestic and international economic issues, evaluate the federal government's economic policies, prepare annual Presidential Economic Reports, and make policy recommendations to the president on national economic development. 
The President's Economic Advisory Board was established under the Employment Act of 1946. It was originally affiliated with the President's Office and became an independent policy research organization in 1953 under the US Government's "Institutional Reorganization Plan."

The committee is composed of three members, all subject to the recommendation and review of the Senate and appointed by the President. The current chairman is Robert G. Hubbard. 
According to the "Presidential Economic Report 2002", in addition to three members, the Presidential Economic Advisory Board also employs more than 30 academic economists and statisticians.

The Office of Management and Budget (formerly known as the "Budget") was established in 1939. The office is staffed by 20 people and the current director Mitchell Daniels (Jr.) has two deputy directors and is responsible for budget, legislation, administration, economic policy, energy (natural resources, science), national security and diplomacy and other director assistants.

The main duties of the Office of Management and Budget are to assist the president in maintaining an effective government by reviewing the organizational structure and management procedures of various administrative departments, 
To develop effective coordination mechanisms to assist the president and to strengthen cooperation between government agencies, 
To help the president prepare Budget and formulate the government's financial plan.
Review and control the government's budget, help the president formulate reform policies, and in particular report the government's financial burden to the president in a timely manner.

The Office of Policy Development consists of the National Policy Council and the National Economic Council, both of which are responsible for advising the president, helping him formulate, coordinate, and implement domestic economic policies, and also advising the president on other policies. The Domestic Policy Council was established on August 16, 1993.

It is mainly responsible for reviewing the research and implementation of the President's domestic economic policy and coordinating cooperation among agencies of the federal government. The National Economic Council was established on January 25, 1993.

It is mainly responsible for coordinating the formulation of the president's economic policy and providing economic policy advice to the president. The committee is also responsible for ensuring the implementation of economic policy decisions. The National Economic Council is chaired by Presidential Economic Policy Assistant Larry Lindsey.

The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) was established under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969--NEPA. Located in the President's Executive Office. 
In accordance with the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970, an “Environmental Quality Office” (OEQ) was established to provide professional and administrative support to the Commission. The chairman of the committee also serves as the director of the office and is appointed by the president.

As required by law, the committee evaluates and coordinates actions of the federal government, advises the president on domestic and international environmental policies, and prepares the president's annual environmental quality report for Congress. 
In addition, the committee is responsible for reviewing the implementation of various national environmental policies by various agencies and parts of the federal government.

The Office of National Drug Control Policy was established under the National Narcotics Leadership Act of 1988. The office is staffed by 14 people and currently has 8 actual members.

The Office is responsible for formulating national drug control policies, goals, priorities and implementation methods, annual annual reports, and proposing anti-drug strategies and national anti-drug budget reports. Make recommendations to the President on all aspects of anti-drug activities, including organization, management, and budget. 
It is also responsible for reviewing the implementation of anti-drug strategies by various government agencies.

The Office of Science and Technology Policy was established under the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976. In the president's executive office. The Office of Science and Technology Policy is responsible for providing scientific, engineering, and technical analysis reports to the President, as well as various important policies, programs, and federal government programs. 
From the scientific aspect, he advises the President on various issues, including economics, national security, medical care, foreign relations, and the environment. Assess the size, quality, and effectiveness of federal government efforts in science and technology.

The Office of the United States Trade Representative was created by Presidential Executive Order 11075 of January 15, 1963, and was formerly known as the "Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations." Under the Trade Act of 1974, it became an agency of the President's Executive Office responsible for processing trade agreements and formulating and implementing trade policies. Authorized by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, trade representatives have been given many new powers, including the enforcement of Section 301.

The U.S. Trade Representative is equivalent to the ambassador and is directly responsible to the President. He is fully responsible for all activities related to the United States in the World Trade Organization, including discussions, conferences and negotiations, and matters involving trade and commodity issues within the OECD. 
Trade issues in development conferences and other multilateral agencies and other multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations. Robert Zoellick, the current U.S. Trade Representative, has four additional deputies, three in Washington and one in Geneva.

Other members include: Chief Representative for Textile Negotiations, Special Trade Negotiators, Agriculture, Asia Pacific, China, Parliamentary Affairs, Environment and Natural Resources, Europe and the Mediterranean, Japan, Supervision and Implementation, North American Affairs, Policy Coordination, Media, WTO, and Assistant to multiple trade representatives in multilateral affairs and western hemisphere affairs.

Institutional settings

Currently, there are 20 departments in the United States. They are the Department of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Air Force, Army, Navy, Defense, Education, Energy, Medical and Social Services, Housing and Urban Development. , Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Labor, State Council, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Veterans Affairs and Homeland Security.

After many years of evolution, many United States departments have huge administrative agencies, and they have become increasingly prominent in the country's economic and social development. The following are examples of the US Department of Commerce and the Treasury.

The US Department of Commerce was established on March 4, 1913, and was separated from the original "Commerce and Labor Department" (founded on February 14, 1903). Labor matters are the responsibility of the Ministry of Labor.

According to the law, the main responsibilities of the US Department of Commerce are:
  • To promote the country's foreign trade, economic growth, and technological progress.
  • Provide assistance and information in various aspects to improve the competitiveness of American companies in the world economy and prevent unfair trade competition from abroad.
  • Provide social and economic statistics and analysis reports for business and government decision-making departments
  • Support the use of scientific and technological achievements, the use of the environment and marine resources
  • Ensure patents and trademarks, and formulate technology development policies.

The highest organ of the Ministry of Commerce is the Office of the Minister, which is responsible for presiding over all the work of the Ministry of Commerce and advising the President on federal government policy, industry and commerce, and the national economy.

There are several bureaus and offices under the Ministry of Commerce, each performing its duties, such as the Bureau of Economics and Statistics, the Export Administration, the Economic Development Bureau, the Small Enterprise Development Bureau, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Technology Administration.

The main role of the Bureau of Economics and Statistics is to provide ministers and other government officials with information on economic development, economic forecasts, and macro and microeconomic policies. The Bureau of Economics and Statistics consists of the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Economic Analysis. 
The Bureau of the Census was established on March 6, 1902 as a permanent institution. Its main responsibility is to provide population-based census data, as mandated by the Constitution. Under US law, the Census Bureau should conduct a census every 10 years. The law requires that any figures about individuals, families and institutions collected by the Census Bureau must be strictly confirmed and used only for statistical purposes. The Census Bureau is responsible for: population and housing censuses every 10 years.
Industrial censuses, including manufacturing, mining, construction, and transportation, every 5 years within the state and local government.
Through regular surveys, provide all kinds of information.
Comprehensive US foreign trade statistics, including import and export figures; various special censuses required by states and local governments; and release of population forecast figures.

The Bureau of Economic Analysis is responsible for: the U.S. National Economic Account, which synthesizes various economic data and provides important economic information, such as economic growth, regional development, and the status of the United States in the world economy.

National income and production accounting, including Production, distribution, and use of national output, estimation of the country's tangible wealth, input, and output tables.

Regional economic accounting, providing personal income, population, and employment of each region, state, and metropolitan area, and total production of each state Estimate.

The international economic accounting account, which consists of international transactions between the United States and foreign countries (balance of payments) and the United States' international investment. 
In addition, the Bureau of Economic Analysis regularly conducts censuses of US investment abroad and foreign investment in the United States, and publishes relevant figures.

The Bureau of Export Administration, an independent agency within the Ministry of Commerce, was established on October 1, 1987. According to the Export Administration Act, its main function is to promote exports and control exports.

The Export Administration is responsible for formulating export control policies for US dual-use goods, including technology, software, and weapons of mass destruction, processing export license applications, and implementing export control laws. These actions are on the one hand to prevent the proliferation of weapons, but also to consider the strengthening of the defense industry base, ensuring national security, and certain foreign policy goals.

The Economic Development Administration was established in 1965 under the Public Works and Economic Development Act. It aims to help the development of local economies in the United States, including agricultural areas and some urban communities that are not mainstream and have slow economic development. The Economic Development Bureau mainly provides some public policy support and assistance, including fund support, to certain projects such as infrastructure construction, planning and coordination, and economic adjustment to reduce unemployment in these areas. 
In the Economic Development Bureau's Planning Grants, most are targeted at states, local governments, and communities to help them formulate effective economic development policies and development plans, and provide technical and financial support, including industrial research, management Development of natural resources and promotion of exports.

The International Trade Administration was established on January 2, 1980. Its main task is to promote foreign trade and strengthen the United States' international trade and investment status. On the import side, the main responsibility is to protect American companies from unfair trade practices.

The International Trade Bureau is headed by an Assistant Minister for International Trade Affairs, who also provides professional and intelligence support to the United States Trade Representative. 
The International Trade Bureau has several departments.
The Import Office is responsible for deciding whether to implement relevant anti-dumping measures against an imported product.
The Market Access and Application Office is responsible for analyzing, formulating and implementing US international economic policies, opening up overseas markets for US companies, and improving the United States 
status of international trade and international investment. 
The Trade Development Office is responsible for providing advice on international trade and investment, supporting the US industrial sector, strengthening the competitiveness of US domestic exports, and promoting the participation of American companies in international markets. 
In addition, there is an "Export Assistance Centers-International Trade Administration", which is responsible for providing US companies with export-related information and various other support.

The Minority Business Development Agency was established by the Presidential Executive Order in 1969 and is located in the Department of Commerce. It is responsible for formulating national small business development plans and supporting small businesses to enable them to participate effectively and equally in the US free enterprise system.

Overcoming various social and economic obstacles. Another important task of the Small Business Bureau is to strengthen the cooperation between the government and small businesses to expand market space and business opportunities for small businesses.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration was established in accordance with the US Government's No. 4 Reorganization Plan of 1970. It is located in the Department of Commerce.

Its main responsibility is to predict, monitor, and analyze environmental changes. Promptly predict, protect people's lives, property and natural resources, promote economic growth, and strengthen environmental safety. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is composed of the National Weather Service and the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service.

The Technology Administration was approved by Congress in 1988 and is located in the Department of Commerce. It is the main technical agency for cooperation between the US government and the US industry. 
It aims to provide information to businesses and strengthen the competitiveness of American companies. 
The Technology Administration consists of several departments, including the Technology Policy Office, the National Technology Information Bureau, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

The main task of the Office of Technology Policy is to provide support to the private sector. It aims to advance technology policies, maximize the impact of technology on economic growth, enhance the competitiveness of American industries, and protect the interests of the industry.

In addition, he is responsible for supporting the technological capabilities of federal, state, and local government officials, industry, and academic institutions to promote US national technological development and the competitiveness of the US economy.

The National Technical Information Service has become the largest science, technology, engineering, and other business-related information center in the United States. Its main source of information is various US government agencies. It also extensively collects various technical research reports, foreign and domestic trade conditions, business and management research, socioeconomic and trade statistics, computer software and databases, annual health care reports and various other data and global competitive intelligence.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the main task is to help the business community develop new technologies, improve product quality and production processes, based on new scientific discoveries, accelerate the commercialization of products, and Strengthen the US economy, improve work quality, improve applied technology, and raise standards.

In addition to the above agencies, the US Department of Commerce also has:

  1.  A Patent and Trademark Office
  2. A Policy and Strategic Planning Office
  3. A Corporate Development Supervision Office

The US Treasury was established on September 2, 1789 and is the oldest government agency in the United States. As the president's policy advisor, the Treasurer's main role is to formulate and formulate domestic and international financial, economic, and tax policies, participate in the formulation of broad fiscal policies, manage national debt, and act as a financial agent for the US government. The Ministry of Finance has several assistant ministers responsible for economic policy, macroeconomic policy coordination, microeconomics, banking and finance, taxation and budgeting, public relations and international affairs, and so on.

The US Congress has passed countless statutes, granted the Treasury various new responsibilities, and established countless bureaus and offices. Such as the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency: Founded on February 25, 1863, the main task is to manage banks across the country. The Director of the Monetary Authority is appointed by the President for a term of five years. The Monetary Authority has the power to inspect banks, approve or reject applications for establishment and merger of new banks, and make decisions to close a bank. Internal Revenue Service: As early as July 1, 1862, the United States established the Internal Revenue Service. The US Congress first authorized personal income taxes and corporate taxes in 1913.
Currently, the main task of the Internal Revenue Service is to implement domestic tax laws. The main sources of US tax revenue are personal income tax, social insurance, and retirement tax.

Other important taxes are corporate tax, consumption tax, real estate tax, and gift tax. The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Economic Policy: Responsible for assisting senior government officials in formulating economic policies, analyzing and evaluating domestic and international economic issues, and the development of financial markets. In addition, he is also responsible for economic forecasting according to the annual budget plan.

The Office of International Affairs: has offices in Asia, the Americas, Africa, Europe and the Middle East, and helps the Minister of Finance to formulate relevant international financial, economic, monetary, trade, investment, and environmental, energy policies and plans. 
Tax Policy Office: Formulate domestic and international tax policies, analyze the effects of various tax legislation and plans, forecast economic trends, prepare official estimates of government revenue estimates, and make recommendations for international and international investment matters. United States Customs Service (United States Customs Service): Established under the Fifth Act of the First Congress of the United States, in March 1929 became an independent agency within the Treasury. Its main functions are to prevent smuggling (including drugs and illicit drugs), collect duties and penalties, etc. 

Positions in the united States of America Government
Financial Management Service: Responsible for researching, formulating, and managing the federal financial system to make the government's cash flow efficiently and safely. The Monetary Authority is also responsible for calculating the monetary assets and liabilities of the Ministry of Finance, and tracking the revenue and expenditure of the Ministry of Finance. Bureau of the Public Debt. Established on June 30, 1940, its main duties are to raise funds required by the federal government, calculate public debt, issue and repurchase Treasury bills, and implement debt management policies.

In addition, the U.S. Treasury has many other agencies, such as the US Secret Service, which protects the president and other high-level government officials, as well as U.S. government power and other assets.
The Federal Law Enforcement and Training Center Training Center), which is responsible for providing legal training to federal agencies.
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms is responsible for levying taxes on alcohol and tobacco products to prevent smuggling and illegal sales of tobacco and alcohol Products; The Office of Foreign Assets Control, which controls assets in frozen countries in the United States; The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Financial Institutions is responsible for monitoring and implementing various policies related to financial institutions and regulations enforcement.

Details of the U.S. Government Service Positions Related Duties

(C) Establishment of other independent institutions

At present, there are more than 60 independent agencies in the United States. The more important ones include the Central Intelligence Agency and the Commodity Futures Trading.

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200 Days Holiday Offs a Year for Civil Servants in India

The most enviable thing by the world is that Indian civil servants have countless holidays throughout the year. It is needless to say that Independence Day and Republic Day are celebrated. It is natural to take a few days off for national festivals such as Diwali and Holly. In order to sacrifice the founding father at home. There are also Christmas, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr, and all countable religious festivals, and the office is closed. In addition, civil servants can enjoy 1 month paid leave, 20 days medical leave, 20 days half paid leave, etc. every year. Counting down the Indian government civil servants only need to work 164 days a year.

This article is taken "off" of 2006 04: cultivate original entitled: 200 days a year to rest work style Indian Civil Service

As a country with hundreds of years of colonial history, India's political system is deeply imprinted by the British, and its civil system, which is often referred to as the civil service system, is no exception. Under the governor of India appointed by the King of England that year, a complete and effective civil service was operating in the British-Indian colonial government. After India's independence in 1947, the government adopted a British parliamentary system. Judging from the practice of countries in the world, the governments of parliamentary countries have changed relatively frequently.

In the past 20 years, filtered ads have replaced seven governments, the shortest of which has been in power for only 14 days. Who will ensure the stability of the government and the continuity of the policy when the government's prime minister and ministers rotate in rotation? Civil servants are playing this role.

The total number of civil servants in India is nearly 10 million, of which 6000 to 7,000 are selected through the All-Indian Civil Service Examination, and most of them are recruited by various levels of government or various departments through various forms. From the perspective of the design of India's political system, elected government prime ministers and ministers are policy makers, and civil servants at all levels are policy executors. However, from the perspective of India's decades of independent political practice, those who have won through elections have come to power. In most cases, the ministers are not familiar with the business that the department is responsible for. When formulating policies, they must listen to the opinions of lower-level civil servants. Therefore, government civil servants are also largely policy makers.

The most unique feature of the Indian civil service system is that in the All India civil service system, the titles of leaders at all levels are without exception all secretaries. For example, assistant secretaries are equivalent to section chiefs, low-level secretaries are directors, and joint secretaries are directors. At the first level, the secretary is called directly. For example, the Minister of Foreign Affairs calls the Foreign Secretary, and the Minister of Culture calls the Cultural Secretary. All civil servants are not affiliated with various political parties, and their positions do not change with the replacement of political parties. Even if the civil servants reach the secretary level, they must resign from public office and join a political party to participate in election activities. This system design guarantees that governments at all levels can maintain the most basic operations and functions in the face of fierce party struggles and frequent replacement of the main government leadership.

In India, whenever someone mentions that they are government civil servants, people who hear them often slap their lips. After spending a long time in India, they can realize the profound meaning in this expression, that is, envy and contempt. The envy is the high benefits enjoyed by civil servants, while the contempt is their inefficiency.
Holidays for Government Workers or Civil Servants in India

Indian people Civil Services obsessed

In a society with a long history of hierarchies such as India, civil servants can be considered high in society. General government civil servants earn about $ 500 a month, and can enjoy a wide range of subsidies. Housing is also provided by the public. Although the standard is not high, the rent is very low, which is basically equivalent to giving away. The most enviable thing is that Indian civil servants have countless holidays throughout the year. It is needless to say that Independence Day and Republic Day are celebrated. It is natural to take a few days off for national festivals such as Diwali and Holly.

Gandhi does not go to work for his birthday. A memorial service for the founding father. There are also Christmas, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr, and all countable religious festivals, and the office is closed. In addition, civil servants can enjoy 1 month paid leave, 20 days medical leave, 20 days half paid leave, etc. every year. Counting down the Indian government civil servants only need to work 164 days a year. Foreigners who come to India must prepare a list of various Indian holidays on hand, otherwise they will run into government departments and often run into the door of generals.

One day in August 2004, the newly appointed Secretary of the Indian Railway Ministry, Yadav, came to the door of the Ministry of Railways' office building early. Seeing that the office hours had passed half an hour, there were still people who were slowly moving to the office. Let ’s go carefully and count. Of the more than 2,300 civil servants, 519 were late on the day. In addition to being late, procrastination and inefficiency in civil servants' work are ill. An ordinary office of an Indian government agency must be equipped with an auditor who is responsible for making tea and coffee for all civil servants and passing documents between the offices. The other day, the author went to a director's office of the Indian Ministry of News, Broadcasting, and Culture to discuss a business. During the conversation, the fax machine at the director's hand received a fax. An electric bell, a listener pushed in the door, took the fax from the fax machine, and handed it to the director. This scene was stunned. In this way of work, it is not surprising that a report is submitted and there is no response in the last month.
Official Holidays for Indian Government Officials

The inefficiency of the civil service has made the Indian people complain. At present, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has put the reform of the civil service on the agenda. The reform of the civil service system has also played a role in improving the efficiency of government work. However, since many problems are difficult to come by, it will take quite some time to really change the face of the entire civil service.

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