The Republic of India, Encyclopedia

The Republic of India (Indian Subcontinent)

The Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य, English: Republic of India, India), referred to as "India", is located in South Asia and is the largest country in the South Asian subcontinent. The northeast borders Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and China.  The east borders Myanmar, the southeast borders Sri Lanka across the sea, and the northwest borders Pakistan. It borders the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west, with a coastline of 5,560 kilometers. It is also a unified multi-ethnic country composed of more than 100 ethnic groups. The main ethnic group is the Hindustan ethnic group, accounting for about 46.3% of the total population of the country.  

Ancient India is one of the four ancient civilizations. The Indus civilization (mainly located in present-day Pakistan) was born in 2500 BC.  Around 1500 BC, the Aryans of Central Asia entered the South Asian subcontinent, conquered the local ancient Indians, and established some small slavery countries.  And established a caste system, Vedic religion began to develop into Brahmanism. In the 4th century BC, the Peacock Dynasty unified India and began to promote Buddhism and spread it outward. Around 188 BC, after the demise of the Peacock Empire, the invasion of the males and the invasion of foreigners led to the rise of Hinduism and Islamism. In 1600, the British invaded the Mughal Empire and established the East India Company. After 1757, it gradually became a British colony. In June 1947, the United Kingdom promulgated the "Mountbatten Plan" and implemented the partition of India and Pakistan.  The Indian Dominion was established on August 15 of the same year. January 26, 1950 announced the establishment of the Republic, while becoming a member of the Commonwealth.  

India is the second most populous country in the world.  It is also one of the BRICS countries. India ’s economy and industry are diversified, covering agriculture, handicrafts, textiles and service industries. Two-thirds of India ’s population is still directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture for its livelihood. In recent years, the service industry has grown rapidly, becoming the most important exporter of global software and financial services.  The world's largest exporter of generic drugs, the world's largest remittance. India is a developing country with extremely uneven distribution of social wealth, and the caste system is more acute.  


Are they all beggars? Why does the Indian police have a beating dog stick in each hand?

When it comes to the arms of our neighbor, India, many people often imagine that they often purchase all kinds of weapons and equipment from Russia, showing the characteristics of people who are stupid and money-rich, or those who can pull a motorcycle

Next, Indian police equipment is not inferior. Because the main equipment of the Indian police turned out to be a long stick, almost everyone, like the beggar gang disciples, carried a stick and walked around the street patrolling.

So why do Indian police love sticks so much?


 

Name: The Republic of India

Abbreviated:    India

Continent:    Asia

Capital:    New Delhi

Main cities:    Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chandigarh, etc.

National Day:    August 15, 1947

National anthem:    People's Will

Country code:    IND

Official language:    Hindi, English

Currency:    Indian Rupee

Time zone:    UTC + 5: 30

Political system:    Parliamentary republic

President: Ram Nath Covind

Prime Minister: Narendra Modi

Population:    1.324 billion (2019)

Population density:    450.4 people / km2 (2017)

Major ethnic groups:    More than 100 ethnic groups including Hindustan

Major religions:    Hinduism, Islamism, Sikhism

National Land area:    2.98 million square kilometers

Water ratio:    9.5%

GDP total:    2.726 trillion US dollars (2018, international exchange rate)

GDP per capita:    2016 US dollars (2018, international exchange rate)

International area code:    +91

International Domain Name Abbreviation:    .in

Road traffic:    Drive left

Legal System:    Common Law

State structure:    Federalism

National motto:    Only truth prevails

Country flower:    Lotus

Human development index:    0.586

Adjacent waters:    Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal

Climate type:    Mainly tropical monsoon climate

Reputation:    Peacock country

Major institutions:    Delhi University, Indian Institute of Technology, etc.

 

Table of Contents

    1 History

    ▪ Primitive society

    ▪ Early culture

    ▪ Sixteen Kingdoms

    ▪ Peacock Dynasty

    ▪ Sado period

    ▪ Rajput

    ▪ Delhi Sultanate

    ▪ Mughal Empire

    ▪ Colonial period

    ▪ India-Pakistan divide and conquer

    ▪ Republic

    2 Natural environment

    ▪ Regional location

    ▪ Topography

    ▪ Climate characteristics

    3 Natural Resources

    4 Administrative divisions

    ▪ Zoning

    ▪ Capital

    5 National symbol

    ▪ Country name

    ▪ National flag

    ▪ National emblem

    ▪ National Anthem

    ▪ National Flower

    ▪ National Bird

    ▪ National Tree

    6 Population and Ethnicity

    ▪ Population

    ▪ Race

    ▪ Nationalities

    7 Politics

    ▪ Government

    ▪ Constitution

    ▪ Parliament

    ▪ Government

    ▪ Political parties

    ▪ Political figures

 

    8 Economy

    ▪ Overview

    ▪ Industry

    ▪ Agriculture

    ▪ Tourism

    ▪ Finance

    ▪ Foreign trade

    ▪ Tax system

    9 Culture

    ▪ Language

    ▪ Religion

    ▪ Clothing

    ▪ Etiquette

    ▪ Festival

    10 Military

    ▪ War view

    ▪ Military expenses

    ▪ Armament

    ▪ Ordnance

    11 Transportation

 

    ▪ Railway

    ▪ Water transportation

    ▪ Air freight

    12 Society

    ▪ Education

    ▪ Sports

    ▪ Information technology

    ▪ Biotechnology

    ▪ Space technology

    ▪ Press and publication

    ▪ Caste system

    13 Diplomacy

    ▪ Foreign policy

    ▪ External relations

    14 Tourism

    ▪ Attractions

    ▪ Special products

 

History

Primitive society

Some scattered early human fossils (later named Narmada) found in the Narmada Valley region indicate that at least in the middle of the Paleolithic period, India had already been inhabited by humans.

The lineage classification of the Narmada people is undecided (Homo erectus or Homo sapiens); their survival time varies from 200,000 to 500,000 years ago. The late Paleolithic began approximately 40,000 years ago and ended 15,000 years ago.

The Middle Stone Age corresponds to the Holocene in geology. Mesolithic culture is widely distributed throughout the subcontinent and Sri Lanka.

The earliest Mesolithic site was found in Sri Lanka, and the northernmost site was found in the Hindu Kush Mountains.

The culture there seems to be a direct development of Paleolithic culture in the same area.

Since about 6000 BC, all parts of India have entered the Neolithic Age. The distribution of Neolithic culture is more extensive.

The Neolithic culture of India is generally later than the culture of the two rivers.

India’s combined use of gold and stone, or red copper age, but metal has also entered human life. The culture of the Jinshi period is mainly found in the middle of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers, as well as Rajasthan, Punjab and Gujarat.


Early Indian culture

The oldest known Indian civilization is the Indus Valley civilization in the third millennium BC. It is usually named after Xalapa (in West Punjab, Pakistan) where the representative site is located, and is called Xalapa culture. The Xalapa culture, after reaching a fairly developed and mature state, declined due to unknown reasons and eventually disappeared completely.

Replacing the Harappa culture is a new cultural system brought by the Aryans who entered India in the northwest. This culture (sometimes called the Vedic culture in the name of its scriptures) is the origin of classical Indian culture.

The caste system probably appeared at this time. This historical period is called the period of the nations, because Buddhism originated from this period, and is often called the Buddha period.

The spiritual life of India in the times of the nations was very active, and many philosophical or religious schools emerged, among which Buddhism and Jainism were the most influential.


Sixteen Indian  Kingdoms

The sixteen kingdoms are 16 powerful kingdoms or republics. Their scope covers the fertile Indus-Ganges Plain. In fact, there are other smaller countries scattered on this range.

Commonly referred to as the sixteen male kingdoms: Gaza, Hansa Luo, Yuanjia, Mojie Tuo, Fuliyan (Baqi), Sera, Zhiti, Baji, Gulu, Banjaluo, Mocha Yeah, Shura Sana, Ashibo, Apandi, Gandhara and Gan Pu Zhe (Jian Xunsha). Among the many states of India, the state of Mojat, which is now located in Bihar, is gradually occupying an advantageous position.


Peacock Dynasty

In the late 6th century BC, Darius I, king of the Persian Achaemenid dynasty, conquered the Indus Plain.

It was King Alexander of Macedonia who invaded India after Darius I.


The rise played a boosting role

Soon after Alexandria withdrew from India, the Lord of Moons, known as the King of Moons, overthrew the Nanda royal family of Motuo. Jandra Kato established the first peacock dynasty in Indian history. He drove away the remaining power of the Greeks in Punjab and gradually conquered most of North India.

During the late reign of the Moon Guardian, he repelled the invasion of Seleucus I and gained control of Afghanistan. The Peacock Dynasty finally reached its peak during the Ashoka period.

Since the beginning of the second century, the Greeks, Cypriots and Sabbath invaders invaded India successively; the Cypriot aggression was particularly widespread. The Da Yues became the most successful intruders, and they established a powerful Guishuang empire in Northern India.


Kato era

The Guishuang Empire split into some small political forces after being strong for centuries. Replacing their dominant position in Northern India was the Gondo dynasty established by Handra I.

The Kaddu dynasty is the first powerful dynasty in India after the Peacock dynasty and the last imperial power established by the Indians. It is often regarded as the golden age of Indian classical culture.

Like the Peacock dynasty, the birthplace of the Kaddu dynasty was in Motuo. The first monarchs of this dynasty were conquerors. They did unite North India, but did not expand too far in the south. In literature, the greatest poet of ancient India, Kali Tuosuo, appeared.

Invaders who invaded India from Central Asia severely damaged the Haduo dynasty. The Kada people were later assimilated by Indian society, but their activities in the 5th to 6th centuries contributed to the disintegration of the empire.

The princes and nations in many places opposed the central authority of the Kaddu dynasty, so the empire quickly disintegrated. The ruling power of the so-called Hurghado dynasty (in fact, it has nothing to do with the real Kheduo dynasty) was once again returned to Motuo.


Rajput

In the 7th century, a new force emerged in North India, the Rajputs. They played a prominent role in Indian history after the 7th-8th centuries.

The historical period from the middle of the 7th century until the end of the 12th century when Muslims conquered North India was often referred to as the Rajput period.


The Arabs conquered the faith of northwestern India in the early 8th century and opened the prelude to the Muslim expedition to India.

From the 9th to the 11th centuries, several powerful kingdoms emerged in South India, such as the Zhu Luo Kingdom and Pandia. Among them, Zhu Luoguo invaded Indonesian islands.


Sultanate of Delhi

The Islamic conquest of India began in the 11th century and was carried out by the Turks of Central Asia.

The Sultan Mahmud of the Ghaznavid dynasty expedite India more than 12 times, causing severe damage in Northern India. The territory of the Ghaznavid dynasty in Central Asia was annexed by its former vassal Ghor dynasty in Afghanistan in 1173.

The ruler of the Gur Dynasty, Muizddin Muhammad (Muhammad of Gur) decisively defeated the Zhaohan people in the second Battle of Dray in 1192. He remained in India's governor (born slave) Gutb -Ding Albuquerque adopted the title of Sudan in 1206 to rule the North Indian region conquered by Muslims, capital Delhi. From then on until the establishment of the Mughal Empire, the history of Northern India is the history of the Sultanate of Delhi.


Mughal Empire

The power vacuum caused by the collapse of the Sultanate of Delhi did not last long, and new Muslim conquerors soon appeared in the northwest.

In 1526, Babel, a direct descendant of the Turkic Timur, entered India from Central Asia and defeated the last Sultan Ibrahim Rodi of the Rodi dynasty in the first Panipat battle. Baber occupied Delhi and was honored as the "Emperor of Hindustan". He then defeated the Rajputs in 1527 and wiped out the remaining forces of the Afghans in 1529. The regime established by Baber was known as the Mughal Empire.

The Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb was called "Mughal in the Late Period."

The characteristic of this period was that the emperors were mostly incapable and incompetent, the Marata people became stronger and stronger, and there was a tendency to replace them with Mughal. However, the factors that determine the fate of India are European powers.


Colonial period

The first European country to establish a stronghold in India was Portugal, their colony


Located outside the territory of the Mughal Empire. Since then, the Dutch have actively intervened and defeated the Portuguese. Aurangzeb ignored the danger of European colonizers during the empire's heyday, and his children and grandchildren were already weak and weak due to the decline of the empire when forced to face the Europeans.

By the 18th century, the major European powers pursuing interests in India were mainly Britain and France. After some struggle, the British gained an advantage and weakened the French presence to only a few small colonies.

The main entity that manages British affairs in India is the British East India Company. After the Marata forces finally disappeared in 1818, most Indian princes recognized the sovereignty of the East India Company.

The latest Indian territories to be annexed by the United Kingdom were Sind (1843), Sikh-controlled Punjab (1849), Beral (1853), and Aude (1856).

Due to various unfavorable policies of the colonists, the famous Indian National Uprising broke out in 1857.



Improvement of Indian Management Law

The "Improvement of Indian Management Law" passed in 1858 abolished the East India Company, and the Minister of Indian Affairs took over all its functions; and established the Indian government headed by the Governor of India. The British also officially ended the Mughal dynasty that had no meaning and exiled Bahadur Shah II to Myanmar. Thereafter, India entered an era directly ruled by the British government.

India under British direct rule (called British India) is divided into 13 provinces, including Myanmar.

Tubang, ruled by Prince Du, existed under the close supervision of the United Kingdom.

This Tubang accounted for 40% of the whole area of ​​India (Tubang in some provinces). Based on India, the idea of ​​containing Russian expansion in Asia led some British officials to expand the territory of British India in the northwest. As a result, the second anti-British war in Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880 was triggered.

In 1885, the National Congress of India was established. In 1906, the All India Muslim League was formed. The British consciously used the contradiction between Hindus and Muslims.

After 1885, there were nationalist gatherings almost every year in India, but the British bureaucrats in the Victorian era apparently ignored the demands of the Indians. The goal of British rule in India was simply to avoid famine.

In 1909, the United Kingdom passed the Morai-Minto Reform Act, which stipulated that Muslims and Hindus should be elected separately in the legislative elections. Since then, sectarian politics has become a system, and the Indian national movement has split.


Indo-Pak Division

The First World War had a major impact on the development of Indian nationalism. On April 13, 1919, the British army massacred the Amli massacre. These facts caused Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who had become the main character of the National Congress, to change his attitude towards the British government and reorganize the Congress in 1920.

The National Congress Party led the anti-British struggle many times between the two world wars, and its guiding principle was non-violent non-cooperation promoted by Gandhi.


In the Second World War, the Indian national movement continued to develop. The meeting between Gandhi and Jinnah ended in failure in 1944, and Indian Muslims have widely supported the establishment of an independent Islamic state.

After the end of World War II, the British power declined sharply, and its colonial rule in India could no longer be maintained.

The Royal Indian Navy Uprising occurred in 1946. In 1947, the United Kingdom proposed the Mountbatten Plan.

According to the plan, the two dominions of Pakistan and India were established on August 14 and August 15, 1947, respectively, and British rule in India came to an end.


Republic

After independence, the Republic of India faced a series of serious problems, especially the sequelae of the partition of India and Pakistan. In the first year after independence, India and Pakistan broke out in a military conflict due to the Kashmir dispute. In the era of Nehru, India preferred socialism and modeled the five-year plan for economic development in the Soviet Union.

India won a great victory in the third India-Pakistan War in 1971, but it also paid the political cost of falling to the Soviet Union. India annexed the Kingdom of Sikkim in 1975, making the original Sikkim Kingdom the so-called Sikkim State. India in the early 21st century has become one of the world's emerging economies.

On September 27, 2018, the Supreme Court of India announced the repeal of Article 497 of the Criminal Code related to "adultery crimes", marking the fact that this 158-year old law has officially become history.


Natural environment

Regional location

India is located in the northern hemisphere, between 8 ° 24 ′ - 37 ° 36 ′ north latitude and 68 ° 7 ′ - 97 ° 25 ′ east longitude


India is the largest country in South Asia, with an area of ​​2.98 million square kilometers, ranking seventh in the world.


Topography

From the Himalayas to the south, it extends all the way into the Indian Ocean, the mountains are in the north, the Indus-Ganges Plain is in the middle, and the Deccan Plateau and its coastal plains on the east and west are in the south.

Plains account for about 40% of the total area, mountains only 25%, and plateaus 1/3, but most of these mountains and plateaus do not exceed 1,000 meters above sea level. The low and flat terrain has an absolute advantage in the country.

Not only is it convenient for transportation, but with the combination of tropical monsoon climate and fertile soil conditions such as alluvial soil and tropical black soil suitable for agricultural production, most of the land is available for agricultural use, and crops are It can grow and has unique natural conditions. 


Indian Climate characteristics

The whole of India is hot, most of which belong to the tropical monsoon climate, while the Thar Desert in western India has a tropical desert climate. There is a more obvious monsoon in summer and no more obvious monsoon in winter. India's climate is divided into the rainy season (June to October) and the dry season (March to May) and the cool season (11 to February of the following year).

In the winter, it is affected by the Himalayas barrier, and it affects India less than the cold current or cold high pressure. 


Indian Natural resources

India is rich in mineral resources, with bauxite reserves and coal production both ranking fifth in the world, and mica exports account for 60% of world exports.

As of the end of 1996, India ’s main resource recoverable reserves were estimated to be 46.389 billion tons of coal (excluding coking coal), 9.754 billion tons of iron ore, 2.253 billion tons of bauxite, 124 million tons of chromite, 65.5 million tons of manganese ore, and zinc 5.89 million tons, copper 3.52 million tons, lead 1.36 million tons, limestone 68.477 billion tons, phosphate 81 million tons, gold 86 tons, oil 896 million tons, natural gas 697 billion cubic meters.

In addition, there are mineral deposits such as mica, gypsum, diamond and titanium, thorium and uranium. The forest coverage rate is 21.9%.


Administrative division

Zoning

The first-level administrative area in the Indian administrative division includes 27 states (provinces), 6 federal territories and 1 national capital jurisdiction. Each state has its own democratically elected government, while the federal territories and national capital jurisdiction are managed by the coalition government appointed by the administrative officer.

In addition, although India does not own land in Antarctica, it also has two scientific bases: Dakshin Gangotri and Maitri base.


List of 27 states in India

Andhra Pradesh West Bengal Assam Bihar State Chhattisgarh Goa State Tripura

Manipur, Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Kerala, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand

Punjab, Karnataka, Mizoram, Orissa, Haryana, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu

Rajasthan Maharashtra Nagaland Madhya Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Uttar Pradesh Table

 

Capital of India

The capital of India is New Delhi (New Delhi), with a total population of 16.753 million (2011). Delhi is located on the banks of the Yamuna River (also translated as Jumuna River), a tributary of the Ganges River in India.

It is a centrally-administered area, including New and Old Delhi and suburban villages, with an area of ​​1,485 square kilometers (including an urban area of ​​446.3 square kilometers). It is the political, economic, cultural center and railway and aviation hub of all India.



Highlights of India

The Republic of India, otherwise known as Brahma. The Indian, Tang Yunyue, has more than one month, which is very well known. (Slightly outlined) It is good to use its native sages to follow the orbit, and guide all imperial objects, like the moon shines.

Zi Enzhuan said second: Inteca, that is also India. "The name of the moon is mixed with Indu.

Historically, China's title to India has changed several times. The Western Han Dynasty is translated as Qiang Du, and the Eastern Han Dynasty calls it Tianzhu. In the Tang Dynasty, Xuanzang carefully discussed the name of Tianzhu, abandoned the names of Tianzhu, body poison, and Xiandou, and called it India according to the local pronunciation.

The translations of Tianzhu, Body Poison and India are all derived from the Sanskrit name of the Indus River (Sindhu), whose Persian sound is changed to (Hindu), Greek is changed to ινδία (India), Qiuc Indaka.


Indian National flag

The Indian flag is rectangular, with a length to width ratio of 3: 2. The whole flag is composed of three equal horizontal rectangles of orange, white and green, and there is a blue Falun with 24 shafts in the center.

Orange symbolizes courage, dedication and selflessness, and is also the color of the Hindu priest's vestment.

White represents truth and peace. Green represents prosperity, confidence and human productivity.

Falun is one of the lion head patterns built on the stigma of a Buddhist holy place during the reign of Ashoka, the third monarch of the Indian Peacock Dynasty.

Generally speaking, people generally call it "Ashoka Falun" (Ashoka believes in Buddhism and has made a great contribution to the inheritance and development of Buddhism).

The sacred "Ashoka Falun" symbolizes truth and morality, and also represents the ancient civilization of India. The 24 shafts of Falun can represent 24 hours a day, symbolizing that the country is always advancing.



Indian National Emblem

The pattern of the Indian national emblem comes from the stone carvings on the top of the stone pillar of the Ashoka of the Peacock Dynasty. Three golden lions stand on the circular platform, symbolizing faith, courage and strength.

There are four beasts guarding the Quartet around Taiji: Elephants in the east, horses in the south, cows in the west, and lions in the north.

At the center of the lion is a Falun with ancient Hinduism. The beasts on both sides symbolize agriculture with a long history and unwavering determination and perseverance; under the pattern there is a motto written in Sanskrit from the ancient Indian holy book Only Truth Prevails. 

On January 26, 1950, the Indian people chose these ancient lion patterns as national emblems to promote India's long culture and history.


Indian National Anthem

People's Will or Jana Gana Mana, which was composed by nobel laurete Rabindra Nath Tagore to welcome the British Crown in India. Though the composer claimed otherwise it is said he got Nobel as a reward due to the British influence.


The lyrics of Indian National Anthem

People in public who are your slaves, glorify you, Lord. The heart and destiny of the Indians are under your control.

Your name makes the whole country work hard. Punjab, Sinde, Gilgalat, Marata, Dharvatra, Orissa, Bangladesh, Wendina, The Himalayan echoed, Zhu Mu Na, Ganga played music, the waves of the Indian Ocean sang songs, praised to you and blessed you, all people are waiting for your rescue.

The heart and destiny of the Indians are under your jurisdiction, and you will never be invincible.


Which is the Indian National Flower?

Lotus. There are seven main types of lotus in India, so it is called "Seven Treasure Lotus". In fact, only two of the seven types of lotus flowers are lotus flowers, namely white lotus (Fentuoli) and red lotus (Bollyhead), and the other five are water lilies.


Which is the National Bird of India?

Blue peacock. There are three kinds of peacocks in the world, namely blue peacock, green peacock and Congo peacock. The peacocks distributed in India belong to the blue peacock, also known as the Indian peacock.


Which is the National Tree of India?

Bodhi tree. Buddhism has always regarded the bodhi tree as a holy tree. Bodhi trees are commonly planted in jungle temples in India, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar, and India is designated as the national tree.


Population ethnic, Indian women and  Indian women

India has a population of 1.326 billion people (2016) , which is the second most populous country in the world after the People’s Republic of China, and its population ranks second in the world. Among them, the male population is 623.7 million and the female population is 586.5 million.

According to the results of the census, India’s population growth rate was 1.764% in the past ten years, a significant decrease from the 2.115% at the time of the 2001 census.

The census results also show that India has the lowest sex ratio of children since independence, that is, the ratio of men to women is 1000: 914.


Indian Human Races

Regarding the division of races, there have always been different opinions. The division method generally accepted by the academic community was proposed by B.s. Guha in 1935.

He divided the ethnicities of India into five main types: the Negroids, the Proto-Austroloids, the Mediterraneans, the Alpoinarics, and the Indian Indigenous.

 

Nation

Hindustan (HINDUSTANI) This ethnic group accounts for 46.3% of the total population of India, mainly distributed in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Bihar and Rajasthan.

Most people believe in Hinduism, and some people believe in Islam, Buddhism, Christianity and Jainism. Most speak Hindi, and a few speak Urdu. Mainly farming.

Telugu (TELUGU) This ethnic group accounts for 8.6% of India's total population, also known as the Andhra ethnic group. Mainly distributed in Andhra Pradesh. Most believe in Hinduism, followed by Islam and Christianity. The Andhra people love chili and like to drink tea.

Bengali (Bengali) This ethnic group accounts for 7.7% of the total population of India. It is mainly distributed in West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. It speaks Bengali and most people believe in Hinduism. Mainly engaged in agriculture.

Marathi (MARATI) This ethnic group accounts for 7.6% of the total population of India and is mainly distributed in Maharashtra. Mainly believe in Hinduism and Buddhism. Marathons love wrestling and are good at cricket, hockey and badminton.

Gujarat (GUJARATHI) This ethnic group accounts for 4.6% of India's total population and is mainly distributed in Gujarat. Speak Gujarati, most people believe in Hinduism, a few people believe in Islam and Jainism. Mainly engaged in agriculture, the handicraft industry is also relatively developed.

The Kannada (KANNADA) accounts for 3.87% of the Indian population and speaks Kannada, distributed in Karnataka.

The Malayalam (MALAYALAM) accounts for 3.59% of the Indian population and speaks Malayalam, distributed in Kerala.

Punjabi (PUNJABI) This ethnic group accounts for 2.3% of India's total population and is mainly distributed in Punjab, India. Most people speak Punjabi, and a few speak Hindi and Urdu. Believe in Sikhism and Hinduism. Most people are engaged in agriculture, and a few are engaged in animal husbandry and handicrafts. Punjabi people can sing and dance.

Assamese (ASSAMESE) is mainly distributed in Assam, India, and speaks Assamese. Believe in Lord Shiva. Engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. Rice is the staple food, and I especially like to drink tea.

The Orissai are mainly distributed in Orissa. Orissa people mainly believe in Hinduism, Orissa has always been known as the hometown of Hinduism, known as the holy place of Hinduism. Orissa people take rice as the staple food and dress simple and simple.


Indian Political Government

India is a federal state, the president is the head of state, but its responsibilities

Mactan Square, Kolkata, India

Mactan Square, Kolkata, India

It is symbolic, and the real power is controlled by the prime minister. The president and vice president of the country are elected for a period of 5 years and are indirectly elected by a special electoral institution.

The presidency is vacant for reasons such as death, resignation or removal. Article 65 of the Indian Constitution provides that the vice president shall act as president.

When the new president was elected and took office, the vice president returned to his original position. If the president cannot perform his duties due to illness or other reasons, the vice president will temporarily act as president until the president returns to office.  

Administrative power is exercised by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister (ie, the Indian Cabinet).

The majority party in Parliament nominates the president for the prime minister, who appoints the prime minister. The prime minister then nominates the deputy prime minister and other cabinet members to the president.

The Indian State Council has one secretary of state and several state councilors. There is no deputy secretary of state.


The Constitution of India

The Constitution entered into force on January 26, 1950. Claims that India is a federal state, a sovereign, secular, socialist democratic republic. Adopt British-style parliamentary democracy.

Citizens are equal before the law regardless of race, gender, origin, religious belief and place of birth. The president is the head of state and the commander of the armed forces. He is elected by the electoral college composed of the Federal Parliament and the State Parliament.

The term of office is five years. The President exercises his authority in accordance with the recommendations of the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister.


Indian Parliament

The legislative power of India belongs to the Parliament. The parliament is divided into two chambers. The upper house is called the Federal House, and the lower house is called the People's House.

There are no more than 250 members of the Bundestag. Among them, the speaker is the vice president of the Republic, 12 are appointed by the president, and the others are elected by the state councils. The Federal Court cannot be dissolved in advance, and one-third of the members are elected every year.

The People ’s House has 545 members, of which 530 are directly elected by voters from various states, 13 are elected by the centrally-administered regions, and 2 are designated by the president.

The People's Court may propose dissolution, and the term of office of the parliamentarians is 5 years.


Indian Government

The executive body is composed of the President, the Prime Minister and ministers. The president is elected by the electoral colleges of the upper and lower chambers and the parliaments of the states.

The president is nominally the head of state and commander of the armed forces, but has no real power.

The current President of India is Planab Mukherjee. The Council of Ministers led by the Prime Minister has real power. The general reason is that the leader of the parliamentary majority. Ministers are nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by the President.

The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority and has the power to interpret the Constitution and hear disputes between the central government and states. Each state has a high court, and counties have county courts.

The Supreme Court judge is appointed by the President. The Attorney General is appointed by the President, whose main duties are to provide advice and advice to the government on law enforcement matters, complete the prosecutorial power prescribed by the Constitution and laws, and supervise the implementation of the Constitution and laws.


Political parties in India

1. The Indian National Congress (Indira Gandhi)

The National Congress Party (British), usually called the National Congress Party of India. There are 30 million junior party members and 1.5 million active party members.

The Congress Party was established in December 1885 and led the struggle against British colonial rule and the struggle for Indian independence.

After independence, India had been in power for a long time, and split in 1969 and 1978. In 1978, British Gandhi formed a new party and changed his current name.

In 2004 and 2009, the People’s House elections became the largest party in the parliament twice, and suffered a serious setback in the 2014 People’s House elections, with only 44 seats. The current chairman Sonia Gandhi.


2. Bharatiya Janata Party

Founded in April 1980, its predecessor was the People ’s League of India established in 1951. Claims to have 3.5 million party members. Representing the interests of the Hindus in the north and the interests of small and medium-sized businessmen in cities and towns, with strong nationalism and sectarianism.

For the first time in 1996, he became the largest party in parliament and took power briefly. He was in power twice from 1998 to 2004.

In 2014, he won the People's House election again and became the largest party. He ruled alone in the central government. The party member Narendra Modi became prime minister. The current chairman, Amit Shah.


3. Communist Party of India (Marxist)

Referred to as the Communist Party of India (Marxist). In 1964, a group represented by Sun Dalaya and Nan Budi Ribad was established after being separated from the Communist Party of India.

With 814,000 members (2002), it is the largest left-wing political party in India. He has been in power in West Bengal for a long time and ended his 34-year ruling status in the state in May 2011. The current general secretary Sitaram Yechury (Sitaram Yechury).


4. Communist Party of India

Established in 1920. Split in 1964, the party headed by party chairman Shi A Danji still uses the name of the CCP. In April 1981, Danji was expelled from the party by the Indian Communist Party for supporting Gandhi, and the party split again. The current general secretary Suravaram Sudhakar Reddy (Suravaram Sudhakar Reddy).


5. Telugu Desam Party (Telugu Desam Party)

Andhra Pradesh local political party. It is an important force in the political arena of India. The 1999 general election became the largest local political party in the country. Ruling in Andhra Pradesh, the party ’s chairman and chief minister of the state, Narra Chandrababu Naidu, is known for his emphasis on information technology.


Indian Politicians

1. President Pranab Mukherjee

Born in December 1935 in West Bengal, India, a member of the Indian National Congress. He has successively served as the Minister of State for shipping, transportation, taxation, finance and other departments, as well as the Minister of Finance, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Minister of National Defense. He was elected President on July 22, 2012, and took office on July 25.

2. Prime Minister Narendra Modi

(Narendra Modi) was born on September 17, 1950 in Wadnagar, India. He is a member of the Indian People's Party. In October 2001, he was appointed Chief Minister of Gujarat and was reappointed for three consecutive terms. May 26, 2014 was appointed Prime Minister of India.

The Speaker of the House of People’s Parliament, Mela Kumar, took office in June 2009.


Economic Overview of India

Indian Industry

India is one of the fastest growing countries in the world, and its economic growth rate is remarkable. Due to India’s large population and low average GDP, India ’s average GDP (purchasing power parity) was US $ 3,694 in 2011, ranking the world’s 129th.

The US dollar exchange rate was US $ 1,389, ranking the 140th in the world. Before 1991, under the influence of the socialist planned economy, the Indian government excessively intervened in the labor and financial markets and supervised business activities.

Due to the Indian economic crisis in 1991 and the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the New National Congress government made India implement economic liberalization reforms.

From foreign trade and direct investment to a gradual transition to a free market, India’s economy has grown rapidly.

The Indian economy is dominated by farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, modern industry and its supporting industries. A quarter of the country ’s population is still unable to feed and feed.

India’s foreign exchange reserves are sufficient and the exchange rate is stable. In the future, the official will also fully remove foreign exchange control, and the market will determine the currency value.

Indian manufacturing exports have begun to decline, and electricity supply in many parts of the country is still insufficient. India has many English-speaking populations.

It is the world’s leading producer of information services, a computer software exporter, and the homeland of many software engineers in the 21st century.


India implements democratic politics while implementing socialism. The government strictly controls private economic activities, foreign trade, and foreign direct investment.

However, through economic reforms in 1991, the control of foreign trade and foreign investment was relaxed, and the domestic market was gradually opened.

The privatization of state-owned enterprises and the opening up of certain areas set restrictions on private and foreign investment, as the related political debates continue.


Indian Industry

During the British colonial rule, Indian industry was dominated by textiles and mining. After independence, industries such as steel, machinery, electricity, and chemical industries have all developed, and industries have formed a complete system. India's textile, food, precision instruments, automotive, software manufacturing, aviation and space industries are developing rapidly.

India has two major auto companies: Tata Motors and Mahendra, of which Tata Motors acquired Jaguar Land Rover in 2008 and Mahendra acquired Ssangyong Motors in 2010.


Indian Agriculture

India is a large agricultural country, with the rural population accounting for 72% of the total population. India is one of the world’s largest grain producers, with 10% of the world ’s arable land and an area of ​​about 160 million hectares.

According to the EU report, India has become a net exporter of agricultural products.

Because the climate type of India is dominated by tropical monsoon climate, the southwest monsoon is very unstable, making the time distribution of precipitation in India very unstable, and frequent floods and droughts, making India's food production very unstable.


Indian Tourism

India's tourism and service industries are also relatively developed, accounting for a considerable proportion of the national economy.

Tourism is a key development industry of the Indian government and an important employment sector, providing more than 20 million jobs.

The number of inbound tourists has increased year by year, and tourism income has been increasing.

The main tourist spots are Agra, Delhi, Jaipur, Chandigarh, Nalanda, Mysore, Goa, Taj Mahal, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, etc. India selected the country's seven historical miracles, India, Rajasthan style.


Indian Finance

The central and local governments are separated, and the budget is at the federal and state levels. Every year from April 1 to March 31 of the following year is a fiscal year.

Deficit budgets have been implemented for many years to stimulate economic development, and central and state-level debt accounted for 80% of GDP.

In 2007, India's overseas remittance income ranked first in the world.


Indian Foreign trade

The main export commodities are: finished products mainly include textiles, jewelry, mechanical products, chemical products, leather, handicrafts, etc.; primary products mainly include agricultural products and mineral products; petroleum products mainly include refined oil, crude oil and petroleum products.

The main imported commodities are: petroleum products, electronic products, gold and silver, machinery, chemical products.

The United States is the largest trading partner. China ranks second. Other major trading partners include Germany, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, United Kingdom, Switzerland, France, Iran, Japan, Hong Kong, etc.


International influence of India

The General Administration of Foreign Trade of India announced on March 5, 2012 that it banned cotton exports. As the world's second-largest cotton exporter, India's decision caused large fluctuations in the global cotton trading market that day.

The Ministry of Commerce of India hopes that the Ministry of Finance will adopt its recommendations to raise rubber import tariffs as soon as possible to help domestic rubber farmers cope with falling rubber prices. The price of rubber has dropped from 230 rupees / kg to about 160 rupees / kg.

Two months ago, the Ministry of Commerce of India suggested to the Taxation Bureau based on the average price of the past three years, the special import tariffs imposed on rubber were raised from 20 rupees / kg to 34 rupees / kg. However, no changes were made to the 20% import tariff.

Importers can pay taxes in two ways: paying a 20% import duty on the value of rubber, or paying an import duty of 20 rupees / kg.

In March 2013, including Kerala, which accounted for about 90% of India’s rubber production, representatives of rubber farmers from various states in southern India visited the head of the Ministry of Commerce and pointed out that if import tariffs were not raised, cheap rubber from neighboring countries would Will pour into the Indian market, further lower rubber prices, and may lead to domestic crisis.


Tax system in India

The income tax introduced from the UK in 1886 became the prototype of the Indian tax system.

After independence in 1947, with the gradual liberalization of the economy, India began to supplement and improve the tax system, gradually levying inheritance tax (1953), gift tax and wealth tax (1958) and excess profit tax (1964) And implemented a limited value-added tax in 1986.

In 1991, the Indian government carried out a systematic reform of the tax system and achieved remarkable results, forming a complete set of tax systems.

India's tax system is relatively simple, including corporate income tax, personal income tax, wealth tax, agricultural tax, interest tax, gift tax, consumption tax, sales tax, limited value-added tax, customs duties and other 10 taxes.

India has reached a high level in high-tech fields such as astrophysics, space technology, molecular biology, and electronic technology.

In August 2009, ASEAN and India signed the "Goods Trade Agreement" in Bangkok. The agreement stipulates that from 2013 to 2016, between ASEAN member countries and India will realize the elimination of import tariffs on more than 80% of traded products.


Indian Culture

Indian Language

The languages ​​of India are mainly Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan, South Asian, and Dravidian. The official language of India is Hindi, used by 30% of the population.

English has terminated its status as the only official language (same as Hindi) in 1965, but it still retains its status as "second additional official language", Is also a national universal language, mainly used in political and commercial exchanges. In addition, there are 21 other official languages ​​of ethnic minorities.

India has about 2000 languages, 55 of which have their own writing and literature. The 19 perfect languages ​​with their respective literary treasures are designated as the official languages ​​of India.


Religions in India

Every religion in India has its followers on the subcontinent. There are countless beautiful temples, majestic churches, grand mosques, incense-filled Buddhist temples, synagogues and Zoroastrian temples throughout the Indian subcontinent.

Mumbai, a commercial megalopolis in western India, can be said to be a microcosm of India's religious, ethnic, and linguistic diversity. In addition to the above-mentioned temples and churches in the city, there are also famous Armenian churches, Shinto temples and Datong temples.


Indian Apparel

Men's headscarves in some areas of India and men of the faith have the custom of headscarves. This kind of headscarf is called Turban. There are various methods of wrapping turbans, among which Sikh male turbans have specific styles.

According to tradition, Sikhs have to accumulate hair, grow beards, and wear headscarves from small to large. Children's headscarf style is relatively simple, only black cloth tied into a bun shape. The headscarf of the adult is more complicated.

First, you must use a black elastic band to bundle the long hair into a bun, and then wrap the headscarf with a cloth about 3 meters long.

The pattern is lined on both sides to form a regular shape. Sikhs have a wide variety of scarves, and some even match the colors of their clothes.

Most Indian men wear a loose stand-up collar tunic (Duni) with narrow-legged trousers (Dhoti). For men in Rajasthan, the trousers are wrapped in a white piece of cloth of Bright color.


Indian Women wear saris

The traditional dress of Indian women is Sari. Sari refers to a piece of fabric that is more than 15 yards in length. It is wrapped around the body when worn. Indian women are good at using techniques such as tying, encircling, tying, wrapping, wrapping, draping, etc., so that saris have different changes in their bodies.

Rajasthani women’s saris are shorter, only covering their heads, but they are colorful and embroidered with gold and silver. The top of a Rajasthani woman looks like a Chinese imperial costume without a collar. The lower body is a piping and long skirt.


Indian Etiquette

Birthday gift


In India, tradition is very patriarchal, because when a daughter gets married, parents must prepare a rich dowry.

If there is no dowry, the daughter cannot marry. The way for Indians to celebrate the birth and growth of their children is to go to the temple to perform the "Puja Ceremony", sing prayers, and then hold a meal with friends and family.

After a child is born in India, parents will find someone to do divination for them. Most of the children's names are taken from heroes or deities. The child's birth date is particularly valued because it can determine the child's future marriage partner.


Funerals in India

When the Hindus die, cremation ceremonies will be held in Hetan. After the death of the Hindus, the family will wrap the body in yellow or white silk cloth, and then put it on two bamboo stretchers and carry it to the cremation site of the river altar in a procession.


Indian Weddings

The Indian wedding is a representative of social status and a major ceremony in life. When young Indians reach the marriageable age, their parents will replace their parents in search of social class, language, and horoscope.

On the wedding day, the groom official rode a white horse to the bride's house. At this time, the fire altar had been set up in the woman's house. Relatives and friends of the two sides bypassed the fire altar in the auspicious mantra chanted by the priest. Afterwards, the bride walked to the front of the fire altar surrounded by her female companions.

The priest tied the bride's saree and the groom's scarf together, which represented a long marriage.

The Indian wedding dinner is held at the bride's house, and a couple sits at the wedding reception to receive the blessings of relatives and friends.

The bridegroom spent the night at the bride's house on the evening of the wedding, and then took the bride home the next day.


Puja Ceremony

Puja is a ritual worshipping gods in Hinduism, and the Puja ritual must be performed by a priest. During the ceremony, believers will decorate the idols and carry them out of the temple to celebrate, and they will offer flowers, coconuts, tikka powder and other offerings. Finally, the priest held the oil lamp and performed "arati" in front of the idol.

In the process of "Alati", believers gently cover the lights in the hands of the priests with their hands, and then touch them on their eyes to represent the power given by the gods.

In India, usually after the Puja ceremony, believers can be divided into some sacred flowers, Tika powder or water, called "Prasada". So in India, as soon as you see the Indians worshipping from the temple, almost all the forehead is coated with red or white powder.

In India, it is possible to see the religious beliefs, races, classes, regions, etc. of the local people in different costumes and dresses.


Festivals in India

Republic Day, January 26 every year. On January 26, 1950, the Indian Parliament passed the Constitution of the Republic of India, and India established the Republic.

Independence Day, August 15 every year. On August 15, 1947, the Indian people got rid of British colonial rule and gained independence.

Holi (Holi), one of the four major Hindu festivals in March and April of the Gregorian calendar. The festival is in the winter to spring and harvest season in India, so it is also called the Spring Festival.

The Festival of Lights (Diwali) is the largest festival of Hindus between October and November of the Gregorian calendar, and is celebrated nationwide for 3 days.

New Year's Day (New Year), India starts from October 31 every year for a total of 5 days, and the fourth day is New Year's Day. On the first day of the new year, no one should be angry with others, and even less be tempted to lose their temper.

People in some areas greet the new year with fasting day and night, starting from the early hours of New Year's Day until midnight. Because of this weird custom, India's New Year's Day is known as "Crying New Year's Day" and "Fasting New Year's Day".


Indian Military

View of war

India believes that war is a social phenomenon of mankind and a form of struggle to achieve national political goals. The purpose of India ’s war is to safeguard national territorial integrity and national unity, safeguard national interests, and achieve the overall goal of the national strategy.

India believes that its army ranks third in the world, the navy ranks fifth, and the air force ranks sixth. The Indian Ministry of Defense is responsible for the command, management and coordination of troops.

The various military service headquarters are responsible for formulating and implementing combat plans and directing combat operations. Army Chief of Staff Admiral Deepak Kapoor, Air Force Chief of Staff Admiral Fali Homi Major, Navy Chief of Staff Admiral Arun Prakash.

Implement a military recruitment system

The total strength of the Army, Navy and Air Force is 1.27 million, ranking fourth in the world. Among them, the army is 1.035 million, the navy 70,000, and the air force 170,000. There are also more than 500,000 reserve soldiers and more than 1 million paramilitary forces.

Military expenditure

India has always regarded the expansion of military power as an important symbol of striving to be a world-class power. India has always been committed to dominating South Asia, directly controlling the Indian Ocean, and becoming the world ’s military power is the ultimate goal of India ’s national strategy. The Indian authorities are convinced that military strength is a necessary foundation for achieving the status of a great power. Diplomacy must be backed by military affairs, and military affairs must be supplemented by diplomacy.

Military strength is not only an important factor in overall national strength, but also the most reliable trump card for national diplomacy.

More importantly, this strategic thinking has won wide support from the Indian think tank, military, academia and the press.

The father of the Indian missile, Karam, has repeatedly stated directly in public: "Weak and small Not respectable, therefore, India must be strong in military affairs. "

Indian Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee announced that by the March 2010 fiscal year, India ’s military budget will increase by 24% to 1.42 trillion rupees, or about US $ 50 billion. It will provide funding for the modernization plan of 1.23 million troops in India.

In addition to the military budget, Mukherjee also approved an increase of $ 143 million for the paramilitary sector. He also said that this fiscal year will increase the so-called border security by $ 456 million.

India is the country with the most arms purchases among emerging economies. Since 2000, India has imported military equipment worth $ 28 billion. In the coming years, India plans to sign further contracts worth an estimated US $ 30 billion.


Arms in India

In order to achieve the national strategic goal of "direct control of the Indian Ocean and strive to be a world-class power", India attaches great importance to the modernization of military forces, has formulated a strategic plan to become a world military power by 2015, and vigorously promotes the transformation of the three armed forces.

Army: Change to a strategic strike service; Navy: Change to a long-range combat service; Air Force: Change to an aerospace service. In this way, a "future army" that meets the needs of future wars and is compatible with national strategic goals will be established.

In order to adapt to the modernization of the military, the military expenditure structure has also been greatly adjusted. The procurement cost of weapons called "primary expenditure items" has reached 334 billion rupees, which is an increase of nearly 169 billion rupees in the previous fiscal year. 1 times.

The Indian Navy has 1 aircraft carrier, 8 missile destroyers, about 40 frigates, 16 submarines, and a large number of auxiliary warships. It is reported that the Indian government has approved the construction of two more nuclear submarines before 2015.


Ordnance

India and Russia will jointly develop the fifth-generation advanced fighter code-named PAK-FA. The Russian-Indian joint research and development of the fifth-generation fighter jet project amounts to billions of dollars, which will become the largest joint R & D project in the military field between the two governments.

India's latest fighter aircraft imported from Russia is Su-30MKI fighter aircraft. The main commander of the Indian Air Force has confirmed that the Indian Air Force has determined the technical performance indicators of the Indian 5th generation fighter.

Allegedly, the Indian Air Force hopes to develop the fifth-generation fighter in five years. It is reported that the fifth generation fighter PAK-FA has stealth performance and can perform supersonic cruise without the use of afterburners. The aircraft will be equipped with an active electronic scanning array (AESA) airborne radar and thrust that can enhance maneuverability. Vector nozzle.

In the 21st century, the Indian Army has purchased 310 T-90 main battle tanks from Russia. The senior Indian Army officer said that the Army’s need to replace the old T-55 and T-72 tanks with 1781 main battle tanks will be through the introduction of 1657 Russian-made T-90S and the ordered 124 Arjun tanks (by India It is costly to develop by yourself, but the quality and performance of the tank always have certain problems, which cannot meet the requirements of the Indian military).

Russia and India signed an agreement to introduce 310 Russian-made T-90S tanks. According to the agreement between the two sides, India will import another 347 T-90S tanks, and the Indian Awadi Heavy Vehicle Manufacturing Plant has begun to produce another 1,000 vehicles under the Russian license T-90S tank.

India has announced plans to build an aircraft carrier fleet and nuclear submarines in the next decade. India has also conducted test launches of missiles that can carry nuclear warheads, and its range can cover major cities in China. And in the border area near China, it is also reopening the air force base.


Traffic in India

Railways in India

The railway is the largest state-owned sector in India and the main means of transportation. With a total length of 64,015 kilometers, it ranks second in Asia, second only to China's 110,000-km railway, and fourth in the world.


Water transport in India

In terms of water transportation, there are 12 major ports, including Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai (formerly known as Madras), Cochin, Goa, etc., responsible for 3/4 of the freight volume. Mumbai is the largest port, and 1/5 sea transportation and 1/2 container transportation pass through this port. Shipping capacity ranks 18th in the world.


Air transport in India

In terms of air transport, there are 14 airlines operating scheduled flights, including Air India and Air India, with 334 aircraft. There are 65 air transport companies specializing in non-scheduled flights and 201 aircraft.

The routes reach major cities on all continents. Five international airports are located in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Trivandrum. 92 domestic airports.


Society in India

Indian Education

India implements a 12-year consistent system of primary and secondary education. A total of 8 years of higher education, including a 3-year bachelor's program, a 2-year master's program, and a 3-year doctoral program. In addition, there are various types of non-formal education such as vocational and technical education and adult education.

There are 350 comprehensive universities in the country, notably Delhi University, Indian Institute of Technology, University of Kolkata, University of Madras, Balati University and so on.


Relevant data in 2007 showed that the literacy rate of the Indian population reached 75%, but adult illiteracy is still as high as 300 million, ranking first in the world.

India is promoting literacy programs in 589 out of 600 administrative regions across the country, and strives to achieve a literacy rate of 85% by the end of the 11th Five-Year Plan.

From 2008 to 2009, the enrollment rate of Indian children aged 6 to 14 was close to 100%, but the national average dropout rate for primary schools was as high as 31%.


Physical Education in India

Bindra won the men's 10-meter air rifle (60 rounds) gold medal for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. This is India's first personal gold medal in the Olympic Games since 1920.

Some analysts pointed out that the victory of Bindra gave Indians a real taste of the Olympic gold medal for the first time, and thus also realized the joy of the Olympics.

People begin to participate in the Olympic Games psychologically for the first time. It is believed that with this universal psychological participation, India's sports career will reach a new level, and India's Olympic gold medals will also be one after another.


Information Technology in India

The success of Indian information technology is well known. By virtue of its talent advantage, India has achieved brilliant achievements by providing services to developed countries.

The contribution of the information technology industry to India’s GDP has grown from 1.2% in 1999-2000 to an estimated 4.8% in 2005-2006. India’s software and information technology-driven services have grown at an average annual rate of more than 28% over the past five years.

The success of information technology has completely changed the evaluation and impression of India in Europe and the United States. More importantly, it has changed India's perception of its potential and is fostering India's scientific confidence.

India’s success in information technology has also played an important role in attracting investment from multinational R & D centers and foreign Indians in India.


Biotechnology in India

India has established new key areas and development directions, with biotechnology as the focus. In the past 10 years, R & D investment in the biotechnology field has increased from 96 million US dollars in 1987-1988 to 358 million US dollars in 2004-2005.

Among them, part of the increase in funding focuses on biopharmaceuticals rather than agricultural biotechnology.

From 2004 to 2005, India’s biotechnology revenue increased by 37% to reach 1.1 billion US dollars. The National Biotechnology Development Strategy sets a goal to increase this number to US $ 5 billion in 2010.

In March 2005, the Indian Minister of Science praised biotechnology as the “best hitter” of the Indian team and believed that biotechnology could be India ’s “next big win” that helps provide affordable health care and alleviate poverty. Successful examples ".

In 2004, the Ministry of Biotechnology issued a plan to turn India into a "global center for bioinformatics."


Space Technology in India

After years of development, the R & D and application technology of Indian satellites has reached or approached the international advanced level, and its carrier rocket technology has also continuously made breakthrough progress.

In 2009, India already had 4 types of domestic launch vehicles: "Satellite Launch Vehicle 3 (SLV-3)", "Increased Thrust Launch Vehicle (ASLV)", "Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)" and "Geosynchronous Satellite" Launch Vehicle (GSLV) ".

While India is vigorously developing rocket and satellite technology, it also seeks to do more. For example, in 2007, India sent the first returnable capsule and three satellites into space with a polar satellite carrier rocket, obtaining important data for the country’s future manned spaceflight program.

In addition, India is also intensively implementing its own lunar exploration program.

In 2008, the Indian Space Research Organization launched a polar satellite launch vehicle to launch the first lunar probe "Yuechuan 1".


On April 28, 2008, an Indian PSLV-C9 rocket was launched with 10 satellites. After the United States, Russia, the European Space Agency and China, they have mastered the "multi-star" launch technology. And one star and ten stars became the first.


News Publishing in India

Most newspapers in India are owned by private individuals and consortia. By the end of 2007, there were 35,595 newspapers and periodicals in 96 languages, with a total circulation of 99 million copies, ranking second in the world. Indian and English newspapers accounted for 37% and 16% of the total, respectively.

he three largest daily newspapers are the "Indian Times", "Malayala Entertainment News" and "Gujarat News". The major Hindi newspapers include "Punjab Lion", "Today's Daily", and "Hindustan News".

The main English newspapers are "Hindustan Times", "Politician Newspaper", "Hindu Newspaper", "Indian Express" and so on.

Republic of India


The main news organizations and news agencies are:

(1) Press Release Department: It is equivalent to the government's central news agency, with more than 1,100 domestic and more than 180 foreign correspondents. The telex network covers all parts of the country and contributes to more than 8,000 news units. There are 8 regional branches and 27 branches.

(2) Indian Press Trust: India's largest news agency, semi-official. Founded in August 1947, it later merged with India Union News Agency and Reuters India Branch, and opened on New Year's Day in 1949. There are currently 136 domestic branches and 11 overseas branches, with more than 1,000 employees and more than 30 overseas journalists. The daily volume of English manuscripts exceeds 100,000 words. Journalists are stationed in Beijing.

(3) India Union News Service: India's second largest news agency, a joint-stock company of colleagues in the newspaper industry. It was established in 1959. There are more than 100 existing branches. It provides news services to four Gulf countries, Singapore and Mauritius, and has branches in Dubai, Washington and Singapore, and dispatches reporters to 22 countries.

(4) Hindustan News Agency: a private company that mainly publishes news in Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati and Nepali. All India Radio is affiliated to the Ministry of Government News and Broadcasting, and the broadcast network covers 99.91% of the country's population. Use 24 languages ​​and 146 broadcasts internally. Use 27-language broadcasting. All India TV was broadcast in 1959. In 1976, Indian Radio became an independent organization under the Ministry of News and Broadcasting, which is one of the world ’s largest television networks. As of 2013, there were 56 TV stations and 23 star channels nationwide. The television network covers 86.9% of the country ’s land area.

Caste System

The caste system is a widespread social system in India and other South Asian regions. The caste system is centered on Brahmin, and it divides many occupation-based internal marriage groups, namely castes.

Various surnames are divided into many sub-castes according to the area where they live, and these sub-castes are divided into many settlement castes according to the settlements they live in, and these settlement castes are finally divided into clans with different out-of-line marriage systems integrated into a set of social systems scattered throughout the Indian subcontinent. Therefore, the caste system covers the vast majority of groups in Indian society and is closely related to India’s social system, cosmology, religion, and interpersonal relationships. It can be said to be the most important social system and norm in traditional India.

The caste system is not a set of absolute social classes, but a set of relative orders established by many different standards, such as, whether to be a vegetarian, whether to kill a cow, and whether to contact a dead body.

The core concept behind these standards is a set of "clean and unclean" values, which are affected by the power relationship in real life. For this reason, Brahmins in ancient India developed a classification structure called "Varna" as a way to explain and simplify the entire system. Therefore, these two sets of thinking roughly constitute the main concepts of the entire caste system.

Article 15 of the Indian Constitution states, "No one shall be discriminated against because of caste, religion, or place of birth"; Article 17 expressly provides for the abolition of the "untouchable system".

In order to guarantee the education and job search rights of low castes and untouchables, India has also implemented the famous "reservation policy", which not only reserves a certain percentage of seats for them in both chambers of parliament, but also reserves them for all government agencies and state-owned enterprises Up to 27% of places.

In addition, a certain proportion of places for students born in low castes are given. There is no longer any record of caste in the Indian identity record.


Indian diplomacy

Foreign policy

India is one of the founding countries of the Non-Aligned Movement, and successive governments have emphasized that non-alignment is the basis of its foreign policy and strive to play an important role in regional and international affairs.

After the end of the Cold War, the Indian government adjusted its long-standing policy of balancing large countries that favored the Soviet Union and implemented a comprehensive and pragmatic diplomacy. India is also a member of the BRICS Group.

On July 7, 2015, India joined the Shanghai Cooperation Organization as an observer country;  On June 9, 2017, India became an official member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.


External relations of India

Sino-Indian relations

During Zheng He ’s seven expeditions to the west, Kerala in India was an important transit point for the fleet. The Zheng He fleet has made many visits to ancient Indian countries such as Guli, Kezhi, Xiaogelan, Gambari, and Kaille, especially the Indian countries that visited the most during the second and seventh trips to the Western Ocean. Among them, 7 times to Guli and 6 times to Kezhi. In 1403, Ming Chengzu Zhu Di sent Yin Qing to envoy Ke Zhiguo (present-day Cochin) and Guli State (present-day Calicut) to announce the rewards.

The two countries also sent special envoys to return with Yin Qing.

In 1407, after Zheng He led the fleet to Guli, he read the book issued by Ming Chengzu Zhu Di to the king of Guli, and gave the silver seal of death.


China and India established diplomatic relations on April 1, 1950. After the Tibet rebellion in 1959, the Dalai Lama set up a so-called government in exile in India, and Sino-Indian relations deteriorated.

From October to November 1962, a large-scale armed conflict occurred on the border between China and India. After the two sides resumed the exchange of ambassadors in 1976, relations between the two countries gradually improved.

In 1998, India conducted nuclear tests under the pretext of the "China threat", which severely frustrated Sino-Indian relations.

In 2002, relations between China and India were further improved and developed. From January 13 to 18, at the invitation of Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee, Premier Zhu Rongji of the State Council paid an official visit to India and successively visited Agra, Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore.

On June 4, President Jiang Zemin met with the Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee who was attending the summit of the Asian Conference on Mutual Cooperation and Trust Measures in Almaty. The dispute between China and India on the status of Sikkim has not yet been fully resolved.

After the outbreak of the global financial crisis, China and India began economic and political cooperation under the BRIC mechanism. India’s economy has taken off since the 1990s, and its efforts to fight for the status of an international power have become increasingly obvious.

India, Japan, and Germany have joined together to form a small group and frequently strive for the status of permanent members of the Security Council. China's attitude is that the Security Council needs reform, but it does not explicitly support these three countries.


In January 2008, soon after Prime Minister Singh’s visit to China, he inspected the India-occupied area, including the eastern section of the Sino-Indian border, and threw out a package of plans to promote the development of India ’s northeastern border area.

On November 8th, Indian Foreign Minister Mukherjee revisited in Dawang, China (known as "Arunachal Pradesh"), and once again declared India's sovereignty over Dawang.


India has stubbornly adhered to its claims in the border negotiations, not only ignoring China ’s reasonable territorial claims on the east line, but even trying to divide up a piece of land on the west line in Aksai Chin.

In view of India's tough stance, it is still a long way to resolve the Sino-Indian border dispute.


India-Pakistan relations

After the partition of India and Pakistan in August 1947, there was always disharmony, and three full-scale wars broke out in 1948, 1965 and 1971.

India and Pakistan instigated and supported the independence of Dongba (present-day Bangladesh). Broken diplomatic relations, resumed in July 1976.

In 1998, India and Pakistan successively conducted nuclear tests and launched a nuclear arms race. Relations between the two countries were sharply tense. In February 1999, Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee and Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif signed the "Lahore Declaration". However, India and Pakistan tested missiles in April.

In May, the two countries clashed in Cargill in India-controlled Kashmir. Indo-Pakistan relations once again deteriorated from relaxation.

During December, an Indian flight was hijacked, and Indian Foreign Minister accused Pakistan of being involved in the matter.

In 2000, India-Pakistan relations were in a stalemate, and the atmosphere eased at the end of the year. In 2001, India-Pakistan relations took the "9.11" incident as the boundary and showed a tendency of slowing down and tightening.

India-Pakistan relations were still in a state of tension and confrontation in the year 2002.

In 2019, Pakistan downgraded its diplomatic relations with India and suspended bilateral trade with India


India's Relations with the United States

In July 2005, India and the United States announced the establishment of a global partnership. In March 2006, US President Bush visited India.

The two sides reached an agreement on the separation plan for nuclear facilities in India, set a goal of doubling the trade between the two countries within three years, and announced the establishment of a science and technology committee to discuss cooperation in civil space.

In December, the United States will pass the Indian-American Civil Nuclear Energy Cooperation Act.

In September 2008, Indian Prime Minister Singh visited the United States and held talks with President Bush. The two sides issued a joint statement, agreeing to carry out civil nuclear energy cooperation.

The United States has set up additional consulates in Hyderabad in India, and two new consulates in Atlanta and Seattle. After the Nuclear Suppliers Group lifted restrictions on India ’s nuclear exports, the US House of Representatives approved the India-US Nuclear Agreement.


Relations with Russia

India and Russia have close bilateral relations. In 2000, the two countries announced the establishment of a strategic partnership and the establishment of an annual summit mechanism.

In February 2008, Russian Prime Minister Zubkov visited India and attended the opening ceremony of the Russian Year in India. The two sides signed two memorandums of understanding on law enforcement and file cooperation.

In December, Russian President Medvedev visited India and met with the Indian President, Vice President, Foreign Minister and parliamentary opposition leaders, held talks with Indian Prime Minister Singh, and attended the closing ceremony of the "Year of Russia" held in India.

The two sides issued a joint statement and signed 10 cooperation agreements in the fields of energy, economy and trade, finance, customs, tourism, and aerospace.

In December 2009, Russian President Medvedev and visiting Indian Prime Minister Singh signed a joint statement of the two countries, expressing a common position on global counter-terrorism, climate change and other issues.

The two countries also signed an agreement on strengthening cooperation in military and civilian nuclear energy. Singh’s visit to Russia came just over ten days after his visit to the United States, which reflects that India attaches great importance to "great power diplomacy" and attempts to develop India-Russia-US relations in a balanced manner.

In March 2010, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin visited India and the two sides signed a series of agreements worth tens of billions of dollars.

In December, Russian President Medvedev visited India, the two sides signed dozens of agreements, issued a joint statement between India and Russia, and held an event to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the establishment of the India-Russia strategic partnership.

October 2011, Indian Defense Minister Anthony went to Russia to participate in the regular meeting of the Indian-Russian Military Technical Cooperation Committee. The two sides held consultations on the implementation of military projects and the export of weapons and equipment.

In December, Indian Prime Minister Singh paid an official visit to Russia and attended the 12th India-Russia Summit. Singh held talks with President Medvedev and Prime Minister Putin respectively. The two sides agreed to deepen the special and priority strategic partnership between the two countries and expand cooperation in various fields such as economic and trade, investment, defense, science and technology, and cultural exchanges.

In December 2012, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited India and the two sides issued a "Joint Statement for Common Prosperity and a Better World". They signed a protocol for consultations between the two foreign ministries, a memorandum of cooperation in science and technology and innovation, and a 2013-2015 cultural cooperation plan Five cooperation documents including the investment cooperation and the memorandum of understanding between the two countries' communication and navigation companies, and reached a purchase and sale contract for arms worth US $ 2.9 billion.


India's Relations with Japan

India-Japan relations are developing well.

In 2000, India and Japan established a global partnership.

Since 2004, India has become Japan's largest overseas development assistance target.

In December 2006, when Indian Prime Minister Singh visited Japan, the two sides announced the establishment of a strategic global partnership and designated 2007 as the "India-Japan Friendship Year" and "India-Japan Tourism Exchange Year."

In October 2008, when Prime Minister Singh visited Japan, the two sides issued the Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation between India and Japan and the Joint Declaration on the Progress of India-Japan Global Strategic Partnership.

In December 2009, Japanese Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama paid a visit to India. The two sides issued a joint statement on the "Action Plan" for strengthening the security cooperation between the two countries.

In October 2010, Indian Prime Minister Singh visited Japan and held talks with Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan.

The two sides issued a joint statement on the "Vision of the Global Strategic Partnership between India and Japan in the Next Decade" and signed the "Conclusion on the Conclusion of the India-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement." Joint Declaration.

In February 2011, representatives of Japan and India formally signed the Economic Cooperation Agreement (EPA) in Tokyo.

In October 2012, the second round of India-Japan Diplomatic and Defense Deputy Ministerial Dialogue (2 + 2 Dialogue) was held in Tokyo, and the third round of the India-US-Japan Trilateral Dialogue was held in New Delhi.

In January 2014, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited India and signed 8 agreements covering the fields of tourism, telecommunications, and power. Japan will provide India with a loan of approximately $ 2 billion, and will also sell amphibious aircraft to India. In August, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited Japan.


India's Relations with Afghanistan

After the establishment of the new Azerbaijani government, it attaches importance to developing relations with India and the high-level officials of the two countries maintain close contacts. Afghanistan is a major aid country around India and has so far pledged 800 million US dollars in aid to Afghanistan.

On October 4, 2011, India and Afghanistan signed a strategic partnership agreement between the two countries. According to the agreement, the two countries will cooperate in the fields of security, economy, trade, culture, education and non-governmental exchanges.


India's relations with ASEAN and ASEAN countries

India and Southeast Asian countries are geographically close and have a long historical relationship. India actively promotes the "eastward policy", strengthens its political and economic relations with ASEAN, and actively participates in East Asian cooperation.

On December 20, 2012, the "India-ASEAN Memorial Summit" issued a statement announcing that India and ASEAN upgraded to a "strategic partner" relationship.


Indian Tourism

Sights:

Ajanta Caves

Ancient Indian Buddha

Teach art sites. It is located in the state of Maharashtra, carrying Mount Vendée and facing the Govara River. It started in the 2nd century BC and continued until the middle of the 7th century.

There are currently 30 caves (including an unfinished cave). It is 550 meters long from east to west, all excavated on the cliff surface ranging from 10 to 30 meters from the ground. Except that Cave 5 (ie, Caves 9, 10, 19, 26, and 29) is a shit cave for worshippers, the rest are monasteries.

Chinese monk Xuan Zang once made a pilgrimage to Ajanta in the early 7th century. With the decline of Buddhism, the gate courtyard here was neglected, and it was gradually forgotten and became the fox rabbit cave. It was not rediscovered until the beginning of the 19th century, which attracted worldwide attention.


Taj Mahal

The fifth generation monarch Shajiehan favored Ji Taj. The mausoleums built by Mahal are all made of white marble.

The main building is 5687 meters long on each side and the dome is 74 meters high. This Islamic-style building is dignified and magnificent in shape and impeccable. The doors, windows and enclosing walls of the palace are carved with white marble into a diamond-shaped lattice. The walls are embellished with colorful vine flowers with jade, crystal, agate and ruby.


Specialty

The origin and development of Indian tea long before the tea became a commodity, that is, around 1830 AD, most of the tea trees were wild and distributed in the jungle in the northeast of Assam.

Around 1598 AD, a Dutch tourist named Jan Huyghen van Linschoten once wrote about his adventures in his book. He said that India treats a leaf as a vegetable and cooks it with curry and oil, and even cooks the leaf as a brewed beverage.

 

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