British Prime Minister. Head of British Government


Job of British Prime Minister (Head of British Government)

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, the full name of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (PM), referred to as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom or the British Prime Minister, the head of the British government, is the representative The highest official of the British royal family and the people in charge of state administrative power.

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is usually automatically elected by the majority leader of the British House of Commons or the leader of the ruling coalition. The candidate is officially appointed by the King / Queen.
On July 23, 2019, Boris Johnson was elected leader of the ruling Conservative Party. On July 24, Boris Johnson took over as Teresa May and became the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

Official Residence of British Prime Minister: 10 Downing Street, Cheeks Manor
First prime minister:    Robert Walpole
Current prime minister:    Boris Johnson

Table of Content

    1. Job profile

    ▪ History

    ▪ Origin of the system

    ▪ Origin of name

    ▪ Prime Minister Power

    2. Current Prime Minister

    3. Successive Prime Ministers

History
There have been 77 British Prime Ministers from the first Robert Walpole to the one now.

British Prime Minister Job profile

Increasingly, he can choose his minister, he can dissolve parliament, and if he is a Conservative, he can also appoint the party's chairman.

What kind of people are these prime ministers who hold the power of the country?

They are all different and different. Includes an amateur scientist, a philosopher, some horse racing fans and sluts, a novelist, a historian, and a generalist (referring to Salisbury, Balfour, Rothbury, Par (Meston, Disraeli, Churchill and Wellington) some mediocre and a few geniuses.

Charles James Fox, Edmund Burke, Viscount Castle Ray, John Carter, Richard Cobden, George Curzon, Ernest Bevin, Annalin Bevan, Hugh Gateskel, Laber Butler and others, for one reason or another, their health or status, disposition, or just failed to reach the top of the political slider.
They are not without the talents of the successful ones. This just means that in the selection process, some people must be eliminated, even some of the best. Only one horse won in the competition.

As expected, the British Prime Minister has always been a mixed family, not obviously talented or imaginative, and occasionally some of them also showed a little genius. Just think about Old Pete, Lloyd George and Churchill. But in general, they are ordinary people, and this fact is not surprising.

Buckchott said: "A politician can combine the power of the first class with the creed of the second class." In other words, because of their professional nature, their insights are destined to be pulled down.

To the level of ordinary people. The Prime Minister's role is to manage a group of ambitious and changeable people-some of whom consider themselves not their rivals or opponents (such as Herbert Morrison in Attlee's government). Unite in difficult times and make sure every member of this band contributes to the ensemble.

The strongest of them said: "As long as we are all talking about the same thing, it doesn't matter what we say. The most important thing is that the Prime Minister must avoid uncontrollable monologues. This position requires a lot of diplomacy, even a little Not honest thoughts.

The government of a democratic country attaches importance to being in conflict with the opposition, and the prime minister should give an impression; he is the leader in a brutal struggle. Therefore, whatever his personal opinion, he must appear vigorous. Balfour lost his leadership in the Conservative Party because of this failure. He must avoid flattering everyone, and at the same time remember that his government, like any other government, is a consortium of people with different opinions, everything from extreme left to extreme right.

According to a survey, 45 of the 49 Prime Ministers to Mrs Thatcher were married. Most of them love family life and have many children and grandchildren. The Duke of Grafton had 17 children before and after the two marriages, while Charlie Earl Grey, although only married once, had 15 children. When Spencer Percival was assassinated in the corridor of the lower house, he was already the father of 12 children. Lord Bout, who has gradually won the prime minister position by playing cards with Prince of Wales, has 11 children.

Most of the Prime Ministers graduated from various aristocratic public schools, of which 20 graduated from Eaton College and 22 graduated from other colleges. Many have university degrees: 24 graduated from Oxford University and 15 graduated from Cambridge University. The two old universities have trained 3/4 of the prime minister for Britain. The six prime ministers, who had no college education at all, had a strange experience. Duke of Wellington, the British commander who defeated Napoleon in Waterloo. After graduating from Eton College, he went to a French military academy. The two-year course was only dancing and horse riding.

The goal was to become a standard gentleman. Disraeli, who controlled the Suez Canal for the United Kingdom, was born into a Jewish family and only attended a religious school for one year after converting to Anglicanism. During World War II, Prime Minister Churchill had to pay too much money to go to the Royal Military Academy of Sandhurst to mix his diplomas because he was too partial in Harrow College.

From a birth point of view, before 1834, the British Prime Minister was born of the aristocracy except Addington and Canning.

Addington's father was a doctor and had a wide range of relationships. And Cunning's mother was just an unpopular actor, who completed her college education entirely with the help of her uncle.

Starting with Peel, people born in the big bourgeoisie came to power. Peel's father is a very wealthy cotton tycoon. His political opponents jokingly called him "Jenny Textile Machine." In a certain sense, his family is indeed the product of the British Industrial Revolution. Reston, his father became a maritime giant by selling slaves.

After Henry Campbell Bannerman formed the cabinet in the early 20th century, people from middle-class families gradually won many victories. Later Prime Ministers including Lloyd George, Chamberlain, Heath and Mrs Thatcher belonged to this class.

The so-called middle class mainly refers to their mental appearance rather than property. These people do not rely on their family's reputation and financial resources, but mainly rely on their own hard work and struggle to reach the peak of their rights.

Of all these prime ministers, only one is truly from a working people's family. He is McDonald, whose father is a tenant farmer in Scotland and his mother is a maid. He basically self-taught himself, and was later elected chairman of the Labour Party, and became prime minister through elections.

What is even more surprising is that among the 49 heads, 15 of them have traced back to the same ancestor. This man was an ordinary country squire, George Williers, from the time of Elizabeth I. He had a handsome-looking son, also known as George Williers, and later won the favor of King James I.

At the age of 30, he jumped several levels to become the Duke of Buckingham. He later became a close friend of Charles I and became notorious He was assassinated by a Puritan in 1628. Among the 15 offspring of George Williers, some have mediocre achievements and some outstanding people, such as Peter and Son, Lord Russell, and Churchill, Aiden and Home. Even Queen Elizabeth II today is related to this family. In addition, novelist Henry Fielding and famous mathematician Bertrand Russell are also descendants of Williers.

Successive prime ministers have different religions. The top 26 prime ministers are all Anglicans, although the Duke of Grafton later converted to the only denomination. The 27th Prime Minister Addington is a Presbyterian member. Gladstone and Salisbury are High Church members, and the latter are Presbyterians: Rothbury, Balfour, Bannerman, and Bona Law. Followed by Wilson (Congregational Church) Callaghan (Baptist Church) and Lady Thatcher (Methodist Church). Only McDonald is an atheist.

Origin of the British Prime Ministerial System

Head of the British Cabinet. It is customary for the King to appoint the majority leader of Parliament. After the establishment of a British constitutional monarchy, the German Emperor George I of Hanover in 1714 inherited the British throne. Because he did not understand English and was not familiar with British state affairs, he stopped participating in cabinet meetings from 1717.

In 1714, Queen Anne of England fell alive. There were fifty blood nobles closer to Queen Anne in front of George I, but they were all Catholics and could not inherit the British throne.

The Queen was the closest Protestant aristocrat, so according to the will of 1714, he inherited the British throne, called George I, became the first king of the Hanover royal family, and a king whose native language was German and could not speak fluent English. He killed Whig leader Robert Walpole as cabinet leader and did not attend cabinet meetings himself. Since then, it has set a precedent for the British monarchs not to attend. The meeting was changed by the King to preside over a trusted minister, which became the beginning of the British Prime Minister system.

Origin of the name

1721 Minister of Finance, Majority Leader of the House of Commons,
Sir Robert Walpole was appointed cabinet leader by King George I to begin the post of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. However, the official name of the post was not the Prime Minister, but "Chief Minister of Finance". Thereafter, the cabinet was usually chaired by the First Minister of Finance, but it was not absolute. Old Pete served as Prime Minister with the Prime Minister.

The Prime Minister's status and name were formally determined by the Pete Cabinet in 1783. When Prime Minister Disere signed the Berlin Treaty in 1878, the name of the prime minister was first seen in official documents. In the early days, most of the prime ministers were appointed by aristocratic legislators, and later the majority of members of the lower house were prime ministers. From 1902, it became the constitutional practice for the Prime Minister to be appointed only by the majority leader of the lower house and appointed by the King.

In 1905 Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman was appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister appeared for the first time in his decree on the King, becoming a formal British official title. By the promulgation of the Law of the Kings and Ministers in 1937, the word Prime Minister was recognized by law.

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom UK

As usual, after the parliamentary elections, the King summoned the majority leader, appointed it as Prime Minister, and authorized the formation of the cabinet. The Prime Minister proposes a cabinet list from his party members and invites the King to appoint him. Ministers are Cabinet Ministers and Non- Cabinet Ministers. Cabinet ministers participating in the cabinet are only some of the ministers in the government. The number of cabinet members is determined by the prime minister, and the number of members often changes.

In addition to the Prime Minister participating in the cabinet, there are usually ministers of important departments such as foreign affairs, defense, finance, and interior affairs. The judges who do not bear the head of a specific department, the president of the Privy Council, the minister of the seal, the Scottish affairs minister in charge of regional affairs, and Wales Secretary of State, Minister of Northern Ireland. Prior to cabinet meetings, the Prime Minister sometimes convened a small number of close ministers to discuss important policy guidelines, called small cabinets or cabinets.
Cabinet powers include:

  • Making final decisions on policies submitted to Parliament.
  • Exercising the highest executive powers in accordance with policies set by Parliament
  • Coordinating and determining the powers of government ministries.
  •  In addition, when the state is in an emergency, it has the right to take urgent action.

 There are various standing committees and ad hoc committees. Except for individual committees, their composition and terms of reference are confidential and must not be disclosed during the term. The office has an office, which is responsible for arranging the agenda and communicating important internal administrative matters such as the cabinet and various government departments. Cabinet meetings are convened by the Prime Minister at any time, and the parliament usually meets once or twice a week.

The content of the meeting was kept confidential. The discussions were not recorded and never voted. The Prime Minister concluded his decision in his own opinion. Cabinet members bear joint responsibility for government policies and actions. Regardless of whether there is disagreement among cabinet members, external consensus must be maintained.
British Prime Minister by Law formation


British Prime Minister


The law is formally stipulated, but according to custom, the Prime Minister has very extensive powers and holds the power of the state. The status of the Prime Minister in the British political system arises from constitutional practice, and its power is also determined by constitutional practice.
In accordance with constitutional practice, the Prime Minister has the following powers:
1. The Prime Minister has the power to dissolve the House of Commons.
2. The Prime Minister may propose to Parliament the right to move legislation.
3 Report the entire situation to the King on behalf of the government.
4 Defending major government policies in Parliament on behalf of the government.
5 Propose to the King a list of cabinet members and other ministers, or ask them to resign or change their positions.
6. Preside over cabinet meetings and decide on the agenda of the cabinet.
7. Recommend to the King the appointment of senior judges, bishops and certain other officials.
8. Decide on the division of powers of each ministry, determine the establishment, merger and abolition of ministry.
9. Provide general guidance to each department's business and resolve disputes between various departments.
10. The Prime Minister holds the commanding power of the three armed forces and has the right to declare war.
However, the Prime Minister, as the leader of the parliamentary majority party, can manipulate the parliament and has the right to recommend that the King dissolve the parliament and declare a new general election.

The resignation of the Walpole cabinet in 1742 due to the loss of parliamentary support set a precedent for the formation of political parties that must have a majority in the parliament and be collectively responsible.

In 1784, Pete's cabinet did not receive the support of the lower house and asked the king to dissolve the lower house and advance elections. After winning, it continued to form a cabinet. This practice became common practice.

In fact, the British Prime Minister has more power than the American President. The President of the United States only has the right to nominate cabinet members, while the British Prime Minister has the right to appoint.

Current prime minister of Britain

On July 23, 2019, Boris Johnson was elected leader of the ruling Conservative Party. On July 24, Boris Johnson took over as Theresa May and became the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
United Kingdom British Flag Union Jack

Successive prime ministers of the UK

1. Robert Walpole April 4, 1721-February 11, 1742 The Whig Party
2. Spencer Compton February 16, 1742-July 2, 1743 The Whig Party
3. Henry Pelham August 27, 1743-March 7, 1754 Whig Party
4. Thomas Pelham-Holles March 16, 1754-November 16, 1756 The Whig Party
5. William Cavendish November 16, 1756—June 25, 1757 The Whig Party
6. Thomas Pelham-Holles July 2, 1757-May 26, 1762 The Whig Party
7. John Stuart, May 26, 1762-April 16, 1763, Tory Party [4]
8. George Grenville April 16, 1763-July 13, 1765 The Whig Party
9. Charles Watson-Wentworth July 13, 1765-July 30, 1766 The Whig Party
10. William Pitt (the "Elder"), July 30, 1766-October 14, 1768, The Whig Party
11. Augustus Henry FitzRoy October 14, 1768-January 28, 1770 The Whig Party
12. Frederick North January 28, 1770-March 22, 1782 Tory Party
13. Charles Watson-Wentworth (March 27, 1782-July 1, 1782)
14. William Petty July 4, 1782-April 2, 1783 The Whig Party
15. William Cavendish-Bentinck April 2, 1783—December 19, 1783 Tory Party / Fox-North Joint Cabinet
16. William Pitt ‘the Younger’ December 19, 1783-March 14, 1801 Tory Party
17. Henry Addington March 17, 1801-May 10, 1804 Tory Party
18. William Pitt ‘the Younger’ May 10, 1804-January 23, 1806
19. William Wyndham Grenville (February 11, 1806-March 31, 1807)
20. William Cavendish-Bentinck March 31, 1807-October 4, 1809 Tory Party
21. Spencer Perceval, October 4, 1809-May 11, 1812, Tory Party
22. Robert Banks Jenkinson June 9, 1812-April 10, 1827 Tory Party
23. George Canning, April 10, 1827-August 8, 1827, Tory Party [4]
24. Frederick John Robinson August 31, 1827-January 22, 1828 Tory Party
25. Arthur Wellesley January 22, 1828-November 22, 1830 Tory Party
26. Charles Grey November 22, 1830-July 16, 1834 The Whig Party
27. William Lamb July 16, 1834-November 17, 1834 The Whig Party
28. Arthur Wellesley (November 17, 1834-December 9, 1834)
29. Robert Peel December 10, 1834-April 18, 1835 Conservative Party
30. William Lamb April 18, 1835-August 30, 1841 The Whig Party
31. Robert Peel August 30, 1841-June 30, 1846 Conservative Party
32. John Russell June 30, 1846-February 23, 1852 The Whig Party
33. Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley February 23, 1852-December 19, 1852 Conservative Party
34. George Hamilton-Gordon December 19, 1852-February 6, 1855 Peel Conservative Party / United Cabinet
35. Henry John Temple February 6, 1855-February 20, 1858 The Whig Party
36. Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley February 20, 1858-June 12, 1859 The Conservative Party [4]
37. Henry John Temple June 12, 1859-October 18, 1865 Liberal Party
38. John Russell October 29, 1865-June 28, 1866 Liberal Party
39. Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley June 28, 1866-February 27, 1868 Conservative Party
40. Benjamin Disraeli February 27, 1868-December 3, 1868 Conservative Party
41. William Ewart Gladstone December 3, 1868-February 20, 1874 Liberal Party
42. Benjamin Disraeli February 20, 1874-April 23, 1880 Conservative Party
43. William Ewart Gladstone April 23, 1880-June 23, 1885 Liberal Party
44. Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil June 23, 1885-February 1, 1886 Conservative Party
45. William Ewart Gladstone February 1, 1886-July 25, 1886 Liberal Party
46. ​​Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil August 3, 1886-August 15, 1892 Conservative Party
47. William Ewart Gladstone August 15, 1892-March 5, 1894 Liberal Party
48. Archibald Philip Primrose March 5, 1894-June 25, 1895 Liberal Party
49. Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil June 25, 1895-July 12, 1902 Conservative Party
50. Arthur James Balfour July 12, 1902-December 5, 1905 Conservative Party
51. Henry Campbell-Bannerman (December 5, 1905-April 7, 1908)
52. Herbert Henry Asquith April 7, 1908-December 7, 1916 Liberal Party
53. David Lloyd George December 7, 1916-October 23, 1922 Liberal Party
54. Andrew Bonar Law (October 23, 1922-May 22, 1923, Conservative Party)
55. Stanley Baldwin May 22, 1923-January 22, 1924 Conservative Party
56. James Ramsay MacDonald January 22, 1924-November 4, 1924 Labour Party
57. Stanley Baldwin, November 4, 1924-June 5, 1929, The Conservative Party
58. Ramsay MacDonald, June 5, 1929-June 7, 1935
59. Stanley Baldwin, June 7, 1935-May 28, 1937, The Conservative Party
60. Arthur Neville Chamberlain May 28, 1937-May 10, 1940 Conservative Party
61. Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill May 10, 1940-July 26, 1945 Conservative Party / United Cabinet
62. Clement Richard Attlee July 26, 1945-October 26, 1951 Labour
63. Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill October 26, 1951-April 6, 1955 Conservative Party
64. Robert Anthony Eden April 6, 1955-January 10, 1957 The Conservative Party
65. Maurice Harold Macmillan January 10, 1957-October 19, 1963 Conservative Party
66. Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home October 19, 1963-October 16, 1964 Conservative Party
67. Harold Wilson (James Harold Wilson) October 16, 1964-June 19, 1970 Labour
68. Edward Richard George Heath June 19, 1970-March 4, 1974 Conservative Party
69. James Harold Wilson March 4, 1974-April 5, 1976 Labour Party [4]
70. Leonard James Callaghan April 5, 1976-May 4, 1979 Labour Party
71. Margaret Hilda Thatcher May 4, 1979-November 28, 1990 The Conservative Party
72. John Major November 28, 1990-May 2, 1997 The Conservative Party
73. Anthony Charles Lynton Blair May 2, 1997-June 27, 2007 Labour Party
74. James Gordon Brown (June 27, 2007-May 11, 2010)
75. David William Donald Cameron May 11, 2010-July 13, 2016 Conservative Party / United Cabinet
76. Theresa Mary May  July 13, 2016-July 24, 2019 Conservative Party / United Cabinet
77. Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (July 24, 2019-Today) The Conservative Party






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